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die hardness

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Image
Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 21.2 Hot hardness of hot work die steels (measurements made after holding at testing temperature for 30 min.). Courtesy of Latrobe Steel Co. More
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 4.11: Change in hardness with temperature for some die materials. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... the surface asperities of the workpiece and the die, some small portion of the workpiece surface may be sheared and remain attached to the die surface [ Schey, 1983 ]. Abrasive wear, sometimes called “plowing,” occurs when material is removed from a soft surface due to interaction with a hard asperity...
Image
Published: 01 August 2012
Fig. 16.12 (a) Hard-chrome-coated Carmo die after 50,000 stampings. (b) Physical vapor deposition CrN-coated Carmo die after 1,200,000 stampings. Source: Ref 16.7 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... materials and the basic requirements for cold forging dies. The chapter also covers die manufacturing processes, such as high-speed and hard machining, electrodischarge machining, and hobbing, and the use of surface treatments. die materials die manufacturing 21.1 Introduction The design...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
.... adhesion Archard wear law hardness lubricants plowing texturing tool materials wear 4.1 Introduction Wear is the progressive loss of material from a surface. In metal working, understanding wear is important because: Tooling or die wear can lead to the loss of dimensional tolerances...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... for case support. For the diffused case to perform within its operating environment, the core must be able to support the case when a compressive load is placed on the steel component ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Core support of the nitrided case on a forging die. Source: Ref 1 Core hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
.... Resistance to high-temperature wear . Resistance to erosion or wear at hot-working temperatures, often referred to as “washing,” is important for long tool and die life, and is generally improved by selection of alloying and microstructures that have higher hot hardness but lower toughness. Resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
..., and splitting; they also fail from fatigue on inner or working surfaces. Occasionally, failure by sinking or enlarging of the die form is encountered. Because of this and the high stresses encountered in cold heading, steels with high hardness on the working surfaces (generally about 62 HRC) are preferred...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.9781627084598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... and approximate hardness of the tool shown in (b) are presented. Etched with 3% nital. Central image in lower magnification; all other images in the same magnification. Source for (b) and (c): Ref 9 In summary, the EDM white layer has four major problems that can enable or accelerate die failures: high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... Fig. D2.29 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 356.0-T4, permanent mold. Specimen: 1.125 diam × 12 in. rod. Treatment: 12 h at 980 °F, boiling water quench. Comparison of sand cast and permanent mold Fig. D2.30 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 360.0-F, die cast. Specimen: 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... product is mandatory. Freedom from inclusions, chemical and structural uniformity, and high surface hardness are essential for good polishability. Wear resistance. The flow of material into a die or mold can cause an appreciable amount of wear. A hard, wear-resistant surface is required. High...
Image
Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 14-36 Hot hardness versus testing temperature for high-speed steels (HSS), cold-work (CW) die steels, and hot-work (HW) die steels More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... bearings and metal flow, die bearing surfaces, design systems, and treatments, hollow dies and special die designs. Hard coatings for the die bearings have been presented. For the beginners in aluminum extrusion technology, it is very important to understand the fundamentals of extrusion die technology...
Image
Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 21.5 Variation of Charpy toughness with different hardness levels and testing temperatures on hot work die steels (values in parentheses indicate hardness at room temperature) [ Nagpal, 1976b ] More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., H13 Tungsten, hot work H21, H23 T Tungsten, high speed T2, T4, T5 M Molybdenum, high speed M2, M4, M6 Source: Ref 16.26 16.3 Treatments to Harden the Tools As seen in Archard’s equation ( Eq 16.1 ), as surface hardness is increased, die wear is reduced. Therefore...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
..., such as the complexity and design of the die. Wear or erosion are the main causes of failure, followed by heat checking due to fatigue because of rapid thermal cycling. Table 8.3 lists the common materials used in die design, along with their hardness values. Die component materials and hardness values for aluminum...
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
as a brittle microstructure. (c) H13 forging die that cracked prematurely (arrows). Hardness was measured at 52 HRC but expected values were approximately 44 HRC. The excessive hardness was caused by short tempering times and low temperatures. (d) Typical H13 microstructure tempered at low temperatures. Etched More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... throughout the aluminum industry worldwide. However, when extruding MMCs, dies made from tool steel are not used due to the abrasive action of the hard ceramic particles. The development of suitable die materials and die design has been the greatest challenge in extrusion of aluminum-based metal matrix...