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desulfurization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... lower its opening during charging in such a way that a constant air flow could be kept through the tuyeres at all times. Later the process was further developed by introducing basic refractories, making possible the dephosphorization and limited desulfurization of the metal. (With some ores, phosphorous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and mine countermeasure vessels); and for equipment in the petroleum, chemical, aerospace, power, and process industries. Environmental initiatives, such as flue gas desulfurization in the power industry and the adoption of closed-loop (zero discharge) processes in the pulp and paper industry, have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... produced from base irons having sulfur contents as high as 0.07 to 0.12%, it is probably more economical to desulfurize the iron to a level of 0.01 to 0.025% before liquid treatment. The higher the sulfur content, the more alloy is required for melt treatment. Also, the risk of missing the composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... Additions of up to 5% in wrought alloys and 10% in cast alloys result in aluminum alloys with favorable combinations of strength, formability (wrought products), and corrosion resistance. Magnesium is also used as an oxygen scavenger and desulfurizer in the manufacture of nickel and copper alloys; as a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the CO-producing reaction to reach equilibrium, but also the mixing of the slag and metal also permits desulfurization. By increasing the ratio of argon to oxygen in the injected gas as the refining proceeds, the carbon is selectively oxidized without concurrent chromium oxidation. A typical starting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... alloying elements, injection of calcium silicide or lime for desulfurization and inclusion shape control, deoxidation, and vacuum degassing to remove hydrogen that causes embrittlement in later stages of processing or application. Thus, even though the source of the EAF steel is scrap of varying...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... the melt, not by use of external power. When necessary, cooling is accomplished by the addition of solid scrap to the melt. This process generates large amounts of slag, both from oxidation and desulfurization. The slag is removed manually from the melt by scraping the metal surface so as to draw...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... pollutants such as SOx by desulfurization during combustion Fluidized bed combustion boilers can be further grouped as atmospheric or pressurized units. In atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) boilers, the fuel, such as coal, is crushed to a size of 1 to 10 mm (0.04 to 0.4 in.) and is fed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... to remove sulfur (to convert it to hydrogen sulfide) and nitrogen (to ammonia) for separation from the hydrocarbon streams ( Ref 39 ). Hydrocracking processes combine desulfurization and cracking operation that can convert hydrocarbon feedstocks into various products ( Ref 39 ). Sulfidation in these...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... desulfurization. Vacuum degassing is also possible with the steel in a ladle, and argon lances can be used to stir the steel to make the composition more homogeneous. Vacuum degassing produces ultralow-carbon steels, with carbon contents as low as 0.002 wt%. This allows these ultralow-carbon steels to be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... mm isocorrosion curves. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 15 The 0.1 mm isocorrosion curves. Source: Ref 5 In real-life situations, such as seen in flue gas desulfurization, sulfuric acid can be contaminated with chlorides. While this contamination is deadly to 316 and 317, it has only a minor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... nickel adds little to corrosion resistance. The titanium stabilization of the modern alloys has quite a beneficial effect since titanium is a powerful deoxidizer and desulfurizer, both of which can cause local chromium depletion and pitting. Ferritics, moreover, are essentially free from stress-corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., selenium, lead, and silver; the presence of tin had almost no harmful effects. The presence of only 0.2 ppm bismuth in IN-100 was shown to reduce its creep life by 20%. Elements such as calcium, magnesium, cerium, and lanthanum have been added to superalloy melts as deoxidizers or desulfurizers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
.... Equipment fabricated from 6% Mo superaustenitics has included crystallizers, mixing vessels, pressure vessels, tanks, columns, evaporators, heat exchangers, piping, pumps and valves, seawater-cooled condensers, water piping for nuclear power plants, and flue gas desulfurization components. At...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to cracking of sensitized stainless steels in many boiling water nuclear reactors ( Ref 13 – 15 ). Sensitized stainless alloys of all types crack very rapidly in the polythionic acid that forms during the shutdown of desulfurization units in petroleum refineries ( Ref 16 , 17 ). Because this...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... Excessive final sulfur contents are usually associated with magnesium sulfide slag and dross. When using cupola-melted iron, it is common to desulfurize the metal before magnesium treatment (usually with lime or calcium carbide, either continuously or in batches) to levels of 0.02% or less. Before...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1