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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Phase diagrams are graphical representations that show the phases present in the material at various compositions, temperatures, and pressures. This chapter begins with a section describing the construction of phase diagrams for the simple binary isomorphous system. A binary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the steelmaking process. It explains how iron is reduced from ore in the liquid state through the classic blast furnace process and in the solid state by direct reduction. It discusses the conversion of iron to steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... focuses on the structure of Al-Si castings in the as-cast state, covering the morphology of the alpha-Al solid solution grains and the process by which they form. It describes how cooling rates, temperature gradients, and local concentrations influence the topology of the crystallization front, and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the various types of cushion systems used in forming presses and their effect on part quality. It begins with a review of the deep drawing process, explaining that wrinkling, tearing, and fracture are the result of excess or insufficient material flow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... characteristics of composites. This chapter describes suitable static mechanical test techniques for characterizing laminated composite materials. The approach is to provide recommended techniques, based on consensus opinions of fabricators and users of filament-wound composites, and to survey available...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the mechanical properties of fully pearlitic microstructures and their suitability for wire and rail applications. It begins by describing the ever-increasing demands placed on rail steels and the manufacturing methods that have been developed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter focuses on mechanical behavior under conditions of uniaxial tension during tensile testing. It begins with a discussion on the parameters that are used to describe the engineering stress-strain curve of a metal, namely, tensile strength, yield strength or yield...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... of the machine stiffness on the test results is also described, along with a general assessment of test accuracy, precision, and repeatability of modern equipment. The chapter discusses various types of testing machines and their operations. Emphasis is placed on strain-sensing equipment. The chapter briefly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter focuses on some of the facts of mechanical properties of metals that must be understood to successfully undertake the task of failure analysis. The discussion begins by describing the causes and effects of elastic and plastic deformation followed by a section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., and aging, are also described. The second part describes the engineering calculations used to predict the performance of thin plastic beams, plates, and shells. The issue of assuming small displacements for the calculation of plastic structure performance is discussed and its limitations described...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the metallurgy and properties of ductile cast iron. It begins with an overview of ductile or spheroidal-graphite iron, describing the specifications, applications, and compositions. It then discusses the importance of composition control and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract The vast majority of beryllium products are manufactured from blocks, forms, or billets of compacted powder that are machined or worked into shape. This chapter describes the metalworking processes used, including rolling, forming, forging, extrusion, drawing, and spinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the process of cold forging and its effect on various materials. It describes billet preparation and lubrication procedures, cold upsetting techniques, and the use of slab analysis for estimating cold forging loads. It likewise describes extrusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... fastener system. The chapter then describes important structural fasteners, namely bolts, screws, pins, collar fasteners, rivets, blind fasteners, machine pins, and spring clip fasteners. The following sections describe the process involved in presses, shrink fits, hole generation, and fastener...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... analysis, the authors explore the world of diagnosis of digital semiconductors devices. After shortly outlining the technology behind diagnosis, the main part of this article describes key improvements to the basic diagnosis tools, discussing their merits for the failure analysis engineer. The article also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... absorption in silicon for different doping concentrations at 300K [7] . Abstract Abstract Photon emission (PE) is one of the major optical techniques for contactless isolation of functional faults in integrated circuits (ICs) in full electrical operation. This article describes the fundamental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the various failure analysis techniques for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), focusing on conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes and materials. The discussion begins with a section describing the advances...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., and reconstructed output waveform) Abstract Abstract This article describes the most common, general-purpose analog design-for-test (DFT) methods, analog test buses and loopback, and shows their advantages and limitations in diagnosability and automatability. It also describes DFT and built-in self-test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... on focused ion beam milling used for TEM sample preparation. It describes the principles behind commonly used imaging modes in semiconductor failure analysis and how these operation modes can be utilized to selectively maximize signal from specific beam-specimen interactions to generate useful information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion can be defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. This chapter describes the effects and economic impact of corrosion in major industrial...