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depth of focus

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... . With kind permission of Elsevier Publishing Company The fracture surfaces are generally rough and cannot be easily studied entirely by an optical microscope because of its limited depth of focus and resolution. However, the optical microscope can be used in failure analysis for certain other tasks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...% Cr-12% Ni heat-resistant HH steel with grain-boundary carbides showing (a) an unfocused field diaphragm, (b) a focused field diaphragm, and (c) the focused field of view. When the field diaphragm is in focus, the field of view on the specimen is in focus. Electrolytic etch (60 ml nitric acid in 40 ml...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...°), retrograde viewing (110°), and panoramic viewing (180°). Fig. 16 (a) Borescope, (b) fiber optic scope. Source: Ref 1 Eyepieces are available in monocular or binocular viewing. They come in both fixed focus and adjustable eyepiece focusing. They are also available with adaptation to video...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... results. Furthermore, the absence of the structure information given by the etching reduces clutter and avoids confusion during evaluation. When optical microscopy is used, the low depth of focus can be useful in distinguishing between small pores and nonmetallic inclusions. When the microscope focusing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... resolved by Rayleigh and Sparrow Criteria. Figure 14 A simple lens naturally focuses light to a curved surface. If the detector is flat, e.g., a camera, this results in poor focus at the corners and edges of the image. A ‘Plan’ type objective is corrected to project a flat image. Figure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in order for the image to be in focus. Since small adjustments to the objective lens will have the effect of focusing the image, the objective lens control is sometimes labeled the “focus knob.” However, it is vital to realize that the final spot size and hence the resolution of the image will depend...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., regardless of its elevation differences, must be in focus in order to obtain a crisp image. The depth of field is the distance along the optical axis over which details of the object can be observed with adequate sharpness. Factors that affect resolving power influence depth of field as well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be carried out on site. Photographic recording and quantitative analysis possible Resolution limit about 0.5 μm. Small depth of focus. A.3 Electron microscopy A.3.1 Transmission (TEM) examination of very thin section (foil) or surface replica through which electrons are transmitted. Magnification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the practices and procedures used to reveal and record macrostructural features such as hardening depth, weld thickness, crack size, porosity, hot folds, and machining and tooling marks. It provides information on sectioning, sample location, orientation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in the focus and curvature increases with the axial distance. Therefore, the application of a focused acoustic lens for internal imaging in solid samples results in a curved wave front interacting with the sample surface. This results in the excitation of more than one wave mode that contributes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...). Their main advantage is that they are relatively inexpensive and easy to use. However, there are certain serious limitations of these devices with respect to the maximum attainable magnification, their resolving power, the depth of field or depth of focus that they offer, and the working distance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... an open (unfilled) TSV. Figure 11 Schematic of TSV and illustration of the defocus sequence. Figure 12 Local electrical probing of the investigated TSV structure and imaging of the resulting thermal emission at various focus positions. Figure 13 Comparison of the lateral...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...Evaluation techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces Table 1 Evaluation techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces Technique Information Analysis depth Analysis area Detection limit Ease of use EDS Elemental <5 μm <1 μm <1 at.% Easy WDS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... are not in stereo. At higher magnifications, the depth of field is also limited. A 3D reconstruction microscope can improve the quality of the recorded images. Multiple images are taken at different planes of focus, then digitally compiled to create a reconstructed fully focused image ( Figure 15 , Figure 16...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
....2013.6575676 [5] Lihong C. , “ Package Fault level isolation ”, Proc 41rd Int’l Symp for Testing and Failure Analysis , Portland, OR , November 2015 . [6] Schrag B. , et al , “ Quantitative Analysis and Depth Measurement via Magnetic Field Imaging ”, Electronic Device Failure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... as in the Brinell test, pyramidal as in the Vickers and Knoop tests, or conical as in the Rockwell test. In the Brinell, Vickers, and Knoop tests, hardness value is the load supported by unit area of the indentation, expressed in kilograms per square millimeter (kgf/mm 2 ). In the Rockwell test, the depth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...Abstract Abstract When a material is sintered and evaluated for performance, the primary focus is on mechanical properties. This chapter discusses structural properties for representative materials. Some guidelines are presented on the types of tests and how property values depend...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... microscopy (SEM) is most useful where extreme depth of focus and high magnifications are needed. Fractures generally are complex, undulating surfaces that are difficult to image, and an optical microscope can only focus on a very narrow region because of the very shallow depth of field. However, the SEM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... type systems that place the sample in the X-ray beam emitted from micro-focus or nano-focus sources and record the images after the sample. The resolution of these system depends on the X-ray source spot size, magnification, detector pixel size [7 - 9] . Approximately 1-um resolution is achievable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Abstract Abstract This chapter reviews failure aspects of structural ferrous powder metallurgy (PM) parts, which form the bulk of the PM industry. The focus is on conventional PM technology of parts in the density range of 6 to 7.2 g/cc. The chapter briefly introduces the processing steps...