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depth of field

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., focal length, image contrast, depth of field, and spherical and chromatic aberration. Metallurgical microscope features such as apochromatic objectives, hyperplane oculars, vertical illuminators, counting reticles, widefield oculars, polarization filters, field diaphragms, interferometers, and tungsten...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic physics of light, the inner workings of light microscopes, and the relationship between resolution and depth of field. It explains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... is produced at the surface, the eddy currents flowing in a cylindrical workpiece will be most intense at the outer surface, while the currents at the center are negligible. The depth of heating depends on the frequency of the ac field, the electrical resistivity, and the relative magnetic permeability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... 1 ). Fig. 5.1 Schematic illustration of lighting methods in metallographic optical microscopes: (a) oblique or inclined illumination; (b) normal illumination or illumination parallel to the optical axis—the most common method; (c) dark field illumination. On the other hand, depth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... in many cameras, including digital cameras, can be used. Size and Resolution Lighting Reflections and Glare Surface Relief Depth of Field Lighting Arrangements Extremely clean and low residual steels can be very hard to etch with a sufficient intensity to produce a good macrograph...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... optimized Minimum area Comments Surface pictures Microchemical analysis Scanning electron microscope Surface pictures: above ~500× on polished and etched samples; at all magnifications on high depth-of-field surfaces; accuracy and sensitivity of microchemical analysis 4–5 nm (conventional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Comparison of SEM and Optical Microscopy. Table 1 Comparison of SEM and Optical Microscopy. Technique SEM Optical Microscope Resolution Few nm λ/2 ~ 250 nm Depth of field Large (up to mm) Very shallow (~λ) at high magnification Contrast Material composition, topography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... superimposed on the field of the microstructure. This image was taken through the light microscope to illustrate what the metallographer would observe if a specimen on the microscope stage was being measured. Fig. 6.8 A transmission electron microscope Fig. 6.9 Transmission electron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...). Their main advantage is that they are relatively inexpensive and easy to use. However, there are certain serious limitations of these devices with respect to the maximum attainable magnification, their resolving power, the depth of field or depth of focus that they offer, and the working distance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of amplitudes than the single-element unit. The focusing effect of the dual-element search unit limited the depth of field and prevented extension of the examination beyond a reflection from the inside surface. Also, the use of dual-element search units on piping systems required highly specialized unit design...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... spherical and chromatic aberration. This is the best of all hand-held magnifiers. Fig. 4 Diagram showing lens corrections available in simple magnifiers. Source: Ref 1 The principal limiting factor for magnifying devices is depth of field. As magnification increases, the distance between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... impossible for any one person to be an expert in all these fields, it is extremely important to know when to seek help. In any situation, it is very important not to leap to conclusions, because a misstep can be extremely hazardous for all concerned. The material for this chapter came from “ Practices...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... macroscopic features through structures on the order of size covered by light microscopy through features finer than resolvable in the light microscope. Good depth of field is provided in SEM, and therefore not only features on polished and subsequently etched surfaces but also very rough surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... by more than two orders of magnitude to approximately 4 nm in routine instruments, with ultimate values below 1 nm. The SEM also provides a greater depth of field than the light microscope, with depth of focus ranging from 1 μm at 10,000× to 2 mm at 10×, which is larger by more than two orders...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be carried out on site. Photographic recording and quantitative analysis possible Resolution limit about 0.5 μm. Small depth of focus. A.3 Electron microscopy A.3.1 Transmission (TEM) examination of very thin section (foil) or surface replica through which electrons are transmitted. Magnification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... performing the failure analysis and writing the report will have fulfilled their responsibility. The major components of the portable laboratory include the following: The preliminary examination should begin with unaided visual inspection. The unaided eye has exceptional depth of focus, the ability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... to see the microvoids on fracture surfaces with optical microscopes, because the depth of field is too shallow to image them at the high magnifications needed. Fig. 5.12 SEM micrograph of a ductile fracture surface on a 1018 steel. Original magnification 2300× Grain-boundary fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... ⁢   ( metric  units ) where d is the reference depth, in inches or centimetres; ρ is the resistivity of the workpiece, in ohm-inches or ohm-centimetres; μ is the relative magnetic permeability of the workpiece (dimensionless); and f is the frequency of the ac field of the work coil, in hertz...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... are not in stereo. At higher magnifications, the depth of field is also limited. A 3D reconstruction microscope can improve the quality of the recorded images. Multiple images are taken at different planes of focus, then digitally compiled to create a reconstructed fully focused image ( Figure 15 , Figure 16...