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density measurement methods

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... detection in P/M parts Method Measured/detected Applicability to PM parts (a) Advantages Disadvantages Green Sintered X-ray radiography Density variations, cracks, inclusions C C Can be automated Relatively high initial cost; radiation hazard Computed tomography Density...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
..., and voids that occur in honeycomb core composites. The final section of the chapter discusses void documentation through the use of nondestructive inspection techniques and density/specific gravity measurement methods. composite materials honeycomb core composites ply-drops void analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Solid-state reduction of iron ore and atomization of molten iron are the most common methods of producing iron powders for structural parts. The powder thus produced should be favorable for compaction such that: It fills the die cavity repeatably, which is measured in terms of the apparent density...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... to the experimental data. Statistical methods are used to determine the goodness of fit. The corrosion current density can then be calculated knowing the specimen area, and hence any measure of corrosion rate, such as the corrosion penetration rate, can be determined through Faraday’s law (see Chapter 4 and Table...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... obtained from various P/M processes for steel. All of these P/M methods are employed for gear manufacture, including various surface treatment such as carbonitriding, shot peening, and steam oxide treatments ( Ref 2 ). Density range for P/M steel consolidation methods Table 2 Density range for P/M...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... reaction Powders are fabricated to meet requirements of composition, particle size, particle shape, and interparticle friction. Ways to identify a powder include size distribution and packing density as measured using standardized tests. Powder production is done through several approaches. The main...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... test, it is a static test where the sample is held vertically while being exposed to a radiant flux of 25 kW/m 2 . The smoke density is measured optically along a vertical path. ASTM D 2843, “Standard Test Method for Density of Smoke from the Burning or Decomposition of Plastics” ( Ref 27 ), is also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... that penetration of the testing solution into a sintered stainless steel of a relative density of 86% was only approximately 50% after a 3 week exposure. This signifies that the effective, that is, the actually wetted, surface area was significantly less than that measured by the Brunauer–Emmett-Teller method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... The real-time image can then be viewed directly with appropriate measures to protect the viewer from radiation or can be monitored by low level television camera tubes. Direct viewing of fluoroscopic images is known as fluoroscopy. This method is the predecessor of the modern methods of real-time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the physical root cause analysis of defective systems. With the challenge of increasing component complexity, interconnect density and shrinking feature size, electrical testing and optical inspection are limited to guarantee a high FA success yield. Non-destructive testing methods are the best fit to adapt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the various inspection methods used with metals and alloys, namely visual inspection, coordinate measuring machines, machine vision, hardness testing, tensile testing, chemical analysis, metallography, and nondestructive testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... banding, microhardness, and hardness profiles. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the effect of scaling and deposition and how to measure it. atomic absorption spectroscopy boiler tubes delta ferrite deposit weight density depth of carburization grain size image analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... up to hardening temperature with different volume power densities. Source: Ref 48 Fig. 38 Time-temperature cycle during single-shot surface induction heating and quenching. Source: Ref 49 , 50 Fig. 41 Temperature profiles of tooth gear at given measuring points during cooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...) to large, continuous twin-screw compounding stations (1000 kg, or 2200 lb, per day). Feedstock quality testing starts with density and viscosity checks. For dry mixing of powders with binders, thermal effusivity can be used as a measure of proper mixing. Homogeneity is an important attribute that helps...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... at some distance z 0 from the current. For this case, taking the Fourier Transform, F , of the measured field, b z ( k x , k y , z 0 ) = F ( B z ( x , y , z 0 ) allows us to obtain the two Fourier Transform components of the current density distribution, j x ( k x , k y...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... measurements of nine samples with varying sulfur contents using image analysis with 16×, 32×, and 80 × objectives. The trend line shown was plotted by using the least-squares method to fit all the data points. (From Vander Voort, Ref. 61, courtesy of Plenum Press.) Figure 6-8 Example of grain size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... method of toughening a thermoset polymer is to lower the crosslink density. This approach, when taken to the extreme case in which there are no more crosslinks, results in a thermoplastic polymer. Since amorphous thermoplastic polymers are inherently tough, the more the crosslink density is reduced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... methods Table 2 Comparison of powder processing methods Characteristic Method Conventional Metal injection molding Hot isostatic pressing Powder forging Size Good Fair Excellent Good Shape complexity Good Excellent Very good Good Density Fair Very good Excellent...