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degree of ionization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of how CMOS elements respond to defects. Often circuit depth is lacking so this paper also targets failure analysts who need electronic knowledge, but who may have degree backgrounds in physics, chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science, or biology. It cannot replace a course in electronics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... and plastic properties, especially impact resistance and also steel hardenability. Grain size is characterized by the size of the austenite grain, and it is dependent on various factors, such as degree of cooling and the deoxidation process during steelmaking (Ref 95) . Generally, an ASTM grain size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... With its low ionization potential, argon promotes easy arc starting and stable arc operation. Its lower thermal conductivity promotes the development of axial “spray” transfer in certain forms of GMAW. It is also used in applications where base material distortion must be controlled or where good gap...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... one nucleus into an orbital shared by two nuclei. Covalent bonds, because they do not ionize, will not conduct electricity and are nonconductors. Covalent bonds form the basis for many organic compounds, including long-chain polymer molecules. As the molecule size increases, the bond strength of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract The scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) is an important tool for development of improved molded and flip chip packages. The SAM used for integrated circuit inspection is a hybrid instrument with characteristics of both the Stanford SAM and the C-scan recorder. This chapter presents the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... really came of age with the development of Gaseous Detection Devices capable of indirectly detecting secondary electrons at high pressure. The secondary electrons cause ionization in the gas and the gas ions are then collected and counted to produce the image signal. As the gas pressure is raised in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... light all travel in straight lines. Straight line propagation is the chief characteristic of radiation that permits formation of a sharply discernible shadow. The geometric relationships of source, object, and screen to each other determine the three main characteristics of the shadow: the degrees of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... energy that the electrons pick up by passing through the high field zone of the pinched off channel thus producing hot electrons or impact ionization. The electron distribution in the high field zone is obviously similar to a fermi distribution that again can be approximated by an exponential function...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... degree of skill is required to perform manual brazing operations; personnel limitations may rule out the process. Brazing fluxes and filler rods may evolve toxic fumes and poisonous vapors. Many types of solder contain lead, which is a poison. Many industries are attempting to move to lead-free solder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... be ground out and repair welded. Lack of fusion and lack of penetration result from improper electrode manipulation and the use of incorrect welding conditions. Fusion refers to the degree to which the original base metal surfaces to be welded have been fused to the filler metal. Penetration...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
...-reinforcement combinations offer extremely favorable strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. Transparency . Several plastics offer transparency and a high degree of optical clarity. Toughness . Many plastics offer toughness, most commonly regarded as freedom from the tendency to fracture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... still retaining some degree of ductility. This ability of steels to be strengthened is a direct consequence of the amount of carbon present ( Fig. 1 ). As the carbon content is increased, higher strength levels are obtainable. Although the ductility decreases with increasing strength, it is still high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... cross-section TEM image NMOS transistor, tilted few degrees away from [110] Si zone-axis to minimize diffraction effects. (b) An image of reference hologram without the sample in the path of the beam, recorded after positively biasing the biprism wire. (c) Image of the hologram recorded with sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... ionization probability of the sputtered material while little enhancement is gained using a non-reactive beam. Oxygen is generally used to enhance the positive ion yield via the local breaking of oxide bonds, whereas cesium enhancement results from the change in work function induced by the cesiated surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... selection of a cleaning procedure greatly depends on the degree of cleanliness required and subsequent operations to be performed. Abrasive blasting produces the lowest degree of cleanliness. Solvent, solvent vapor degrease, emulsion soak, alkaline soak, alkaline electroclean, alkaline plus acid cleaning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... range from 425 to 595 °C (800 to 1100 °F). Titanium aluminide alloys show promise for applications at temperatures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). Titanium has the ability to passivate and thereby exhibits a high degree of immunity to attack by most mineral acids and chlorides. Titanium is non-toxic and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... have melting points higher than those of steels, but maximum useful temperatures for structural applications generally range from 425 to 595 °C (800 to 1100 °F). Titanium has the ability to passivate and thereby exhibit a high degree of immunity to attack by most mineral acids and chlorides. Titanium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... a variety of decorative and functional uses. Aluminum typically displays excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, but specific alloys have been developed with high degrees of electrical resistivity. These alloys are useful, for example, in high-torque electric motors. Aluminum is often...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., and degree of chemistry control required. Table 4.1 lists common melting combinations for some frequently used superalloys. Table 4.1 Common melt methods for selected superalloys Alloy Melt method 600 EAF/AOD + ESR 625 EAF/AOD + ESR VIM + ESR VIM + VAR 706 VIM + ESR VIM...