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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... practices have changed over time, and describes secondary refining processes such as degassing, homogenization, rinsing, and remelting. blast furnace electric arc furnace The classical definition of steel is “an iron-carbon alloy with up to [about] 2% carbon” ( Ref 1 ). This limit is taken...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... degassing system. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 7 Schematic of spinning nozzle in SNIF degassing system. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 8 Different grain structure formed in billet casting Fig. 9 Effect of grain refiner on grain structure (magnification 1.2×) Fig. 10 Schematic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... temperature and speed to optimize production. Technology is also advancing tremendously in the area of die technology to increase productivity with low production costs. Improvements are still continuing in degassing, filtration, mold, and cooling systems in billet-casting technology as well as homogenizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of hydrogen in nickel and iron. Source: Ref B.6 as published in Ref B.2 Hydrogen is often removed by vacuum degassing prior to casting. For example, premium-quality steels are commonly vacuum degassed. In addition, some metals, such as titanium, are so reactive that all melting and casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.../yr mm/yr mils/yr AZ91C (untreated) 187 0.18 0.087 18 700 15 600 15 600 … … AZ91C (degassed and grain refined) 66 0.16 0.099 17 690 18 700 15 600 … … AZ91E (untreated) 146 0.23 0.008 0.64 25 4 160 0.15 6 0.12 5 AZ91E (degassed and grain refined) 78...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... 2013 4.6 Gravity Permanent Mold Process 4.6.1 High-Quality Castings Capability Advantages Limitations Silicon Modification Effect of Low Iron 4.6.3 Metal Handling to Avoid Inclusions Gravity Tilt Pouring 4.6.2 Melt Treatment for Fine Microstructures Degassing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... , Metallography and Microstructures of Low-Carbon and Coated Steels , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 11. Hutchinson W.B. , Nilsson K.I. , and Hirsch J. , Annealing Textures in Ultra-Low Carbon Steels , Metallurgy of Vacuum-Degassed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
..., scrap, metallurgical metals, grain refiners, and master alloys that may be added to the heat additively affect dissolved hydrogen content up to the applicable solubility limit. Degassing by the use of inert or active gases reduces hydrogen concentrations by diffusion into bubbles of the fluxing gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... of melting practice used. While many of these steels were originally air melted, the trend has been to move to more advanced melting techniques such as vacuum degassing, electroslag remelting (ESR), vacuum arc remelting (VAR), and double vacuum melting (vacuum induction melting followed by vacuum arc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... pressure = 1 atm. Source: Ref 7 Hydrogen is often removed by vacuum degassing prior to casting. For example, premium-quality steels are commonly vacuum degassed. In addition, some metals, such as titanium, are so reactive that all melting and casting operations must be done under vacuum. In open...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... will perform the touch-up to prevent it from sticking for the next cycle. The system needs to be engineered to manage the damage without affecting the casting functionality. The holder needs to homogenize and maintain a constant bath temperature. The rotary impeller degassing unit (RID) is essential...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... capability. The prototype casting producer should have: Good degassing, filtration and melt treatment practices Effective modification and grain refinement Specialized gating, feeding, and oxide prevention knowledge Localized chilling experience Solidification modeling capability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... F T4 T6 T5 mm/yr mil/yr mm/yr mil/yr mm/yr mils/yr mm/yr mil/yr AZ91C (untreated) 187 0.18 0.087 18 700 15 600 15 600 … … AZ91C (degassed and grain refined) 66 0.16 0.099 17 690 18 700 15 600 … … AZ91E (b) (untreated) 146 0.23 0.008 0.64 25 4 160...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.9781627082808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of combustion. Degassing fluxes to remove hydrogen are used after the surface of the bath has been fluxed to remove oxides. The degassing fluxes also help to lift fine oxides and particles to the top of the bath. Removal of hydrogen by degassing is a mechanical action; hydrogen gas does not combine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... is introduced in a continuously stirred molten matrix and then cast by sand, permanent mold, or pressure die casting. Melting under an inert gas cover combined with Ar-SF 6 gas mixtures for fluxing and degassing is essential to avoid the entrapment of gases. Mixing can be affected ultrasonically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... temperature and composition, addition of alloying elements, injection of calcium silicide or lime for desulfurization and inclusion shape control, deoxidation, and vacuum degassing to remove hydrogen that causes embrittlement in later stages of processing or application. Thus, even though the source...