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deformation rate

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the role of plastic deformation in forging and the effect of strain and strain rate on metal flow. It demonstrates the use of stress tensors and shows how metal flow can be represented qualitatively by the displacement of volume elements and quantitatively...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the fundamentals of plastic deformation and the role of strain and strain rate in sheet metal forming processes. It describes the conditions associated with uniform deformation, the significance of engineering and true strain, the effect of volume constancy...
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Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 20.6 Effect of deformation rate and temperature on flow stress of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy under isothermal forging conditions [ Fix, 1972 ] More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 9.1 Titanium ingot at the start of press forging. Ingot breakdown is done in a press with open flat dies so that the deformation rate can be controlled more closely and the as-cast ingot structure can be worked with less danger of cracking. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... capability under loads sustained over any period greater than the duration of that particular tensile test. Tensile-testing practice accommodates this and related deficiencies pragmatically by regarding deformation rate as a critical variable. A comprehensive evaluation entails the use of several rates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... influence: The flow stress and workability of the deforming material The temperatures in the material and in the tools, especially in hot forming The load and energy requirements for a given product geometry and material The “as-formed” tolerances of the parts The production rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... incipient neck that develops becomes stronger and spreads to neighboring material, allowing more deformation in tension. In some very-fine-grained metals, the value of m may reach 0.4 to 0.5 but only at very low strain rates and within a limited temperature range. Because hot working processes may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... of a metal increases with increasing strain (or deformation) during cold forming and with increasing strain rate (or deformation rate) during hot forming. However, the general principles governing the forming of metals at various temperatures are basically the same. Therefore, classification of forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., such as machining, grinding, and heat treating, in order to complete the transformation from the raw material to the finished and assembly-ready part. Desirable material properties for forming include low yield strength and high ductility. These properties are affected by temperature and rate of deformation (strain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... sensitivity. A high value of m means that any incipient neck that develops becomes stronger and spreads to neighboring material, allowing more deformation in tension. In some very finegrained metals, the value of m may reach 0.4 to 0.5 but only at very low strain rates and within a limited temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... deformation rates, as encountered during vehicle crash conditions. Therefore, TRIP steels are also being considered for applications requiring maximization of crash energy absorption. The microstructure of TRIP steel consists of varying amounts of ferrite, bainite, and retained austenite, depending...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... in the design of forging and/or preforming sequences. For a given operation (preforming or finish forging), such design essentially consists of (a) establishing the kinematic relationships (shape, velocities, strain rates, strains) between the deformed and undeformed part, i.e., predicting metal flow, (b...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
.... In the creep regime, time-dependent creep deformation will result in a redistribution of the stresses. The rate and extent of this redistribution will depend on (1) the initial stress level and (2) the radius-to-thickness ratio, metal temperature, and creep response of the material. Calculations of the rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
...—the determination of the hot working characteristics of metallic materials. The proper hot-working temperature and deformation rate must be established to produce high-quality wrought products of complicated geometries. It is also important that product yield losses (from either grinding to remove surface cracks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...., 1973 ] Thus, in hot forging, not only the material and the formed shape but also the type of equipment used (rate of deformation and die chilling effects) determine the metal flow behavior and the forming load and energy required for the process. Surface tearing and cracking or development...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
.... This extension is creep deformation. The greater the stress bias, a greater amount of creep strain accumulates in a given time; thus, the creep rate is greater. Similarly, at a given stress, the higher the temperature, the greater is the thermal excitation energy and the more events that can occur in a given...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... on the strain rate. This means, in other words, that the flow stress of metals experiences a considerable increase in the case of large strain rates (~10 3 /s in high-velocity processing centers) compared to the measurement in the case of deformations with almost static strain rates. Depending...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... criterion). It compares and contrasts the two methods and demonstrates their use as flow rules. It also explains how to calculate effective strain and strain rate and includes a brief discussion on the mechanical energy consumed during deformation. flow stress plastic deformation strain rate 5.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article discusses the material and engineering issues associated with plastic components subjected to impact. The first part covers the effects of loading rate, temperature, and state of stress on both deformation and mode of failure. It discusses standard impact tests, along...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... of high strength and good ductility. This is achieved in metal alloys possessing high and sustained work-hardening rates during plastic deformation. In TRIP and TWIP steels, these properties are accomplished by the evolution of phase transitions (austenite to martensite transformation and deformation...