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deformation energy methods

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... criterion). It compares and contrasts the two methods and demonstrates their use as flow rules. It also explains how to calculate effective strain and strain rate and includes a brief discussion on the mechanical energy consumed during deformation. flow stress plastic deformation strain rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses bulk deformation processes and how they are used to reshape metals and refine solidification structures. It begins by describing the differences between hot and cold working along with their respective advantages. It then discusses various forging methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of equilibrium phase diagrams, the role of enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy in chemical reactions, and a method for determining phase compositions along the solidus and liquidus lines. atomic diffusion body-centered cubic systems crystal defects equilibrium phase diagram face-centered cubic systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...: (a) direct approach, (b) variational method, (c) method of weighted residuals, and (d) energy balance approach. The main advantages of the FE method are: The capability of obtaining detailed solutions of the mechanics in a deforming body, namely, velocities, shapes, strains, stresses, temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpktmse.t56010001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-384-3
... but only allow 0.001 plastic strain for identifying the beginning of plastic deformation. The offset method is relatively simple. First, the Young’s modulus of the alloy is measured. Next, a line that starts at 0.002 strain is plotted with a slope equal to the Young’s modulus (see Fig. 14...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., this requires quite a bit of energy—the energy to form a vacancy and the energy to form an interstitial. Therefore, the probability is quite low. A more realistic, and lower-energy method, is the Schottky mechanism ( Fig. 2.3 ), in which vacancies originate at free surfaces and move by diffusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., polycrystalline hcp metals can also deform by a mechanism called twinning. This section will give a short introduction to identifying crystalline planes and crystalline directions. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation that has high energies and short wavelengths. Because...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... with the steps involved in determining strain energy release rates, stress intensity factors, J-integrals, R-curves, and crack tip opening displacement parameters. It also covers fracture toughness testing methods and the effect of measurement variables. crack tip opening displacement elastic-plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of the surface energy of the crack, energy of plastic deformation at the crack tip, and energy of inelastic deformation of the entire specimen ( Ref 3 ). Because the latter two forms of energy absorption are a direct result of the time-dependent behavior of the polymer chains, the energy absorbed displays...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpktmse.9781627083843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-384-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... pressure on the deforming material through the tool/material interface. Forging processes usually produce little or no scrap and generate the final part geometry in a very short time, usually in one or a few strokes of a press or hammer. As a result, forging offers potential savings in energy and material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., and energy requirements. Forgeability has been used vaguely in the literature to denote a combination of both resistance to deformation and ability to deform without fracture. A diagram illustrating this type of information is presented in Fig. 14.5 . Fig. 14.5 Generalized diagram illustrating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... particular requirements. However, the pressure application method can be a limiting factor. Materials are joined in the solid state. Metallurgical conditions are generally favorable and easy to influence, because there is less shrinkage and fewer stresses. Component deformation is kept within relatively...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... are hot worked at 60 to 70% of T m because of concern for the transus. This is the first departure from traditional metalworking practices, because the titanium alloys have higher solidus temperatures than the steel and nickel-base alloys. Four major methods of plastically deforming titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... forming. There are various methods of evaluating friction, that is, estimating the value of μ or m . Tests most commonly used for evaluating friction are discussed in Chapter 7 of this volume. Die temperature increases at high stroking rates due to friction and deformation. This affects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... does not reflect the complexity of the process, because the local temperature at the interface is strongly affected by the time and volume in which this kinetic energy is converted to heat. The deformation time is related to the impact velocity and tends to have an effect opposite to that of heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
.... Spray Technol. , Vol 18 ( No. 5–6 ), 2009 , p 921 – 933 10.1007/s11666-009-9325-2 3.34 Li W.-Y. , Yin S. , and Wang X.-F. , Numerical Investigations of the Effect of Oblique Impact on Particle Deformation in Cold Spraying by the SPH Method , Appl. Surf. Sci. , Vol 256...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... on Fossil Energy Materials (Pittsburgh, PA) , 2009 5.39 King P.C. and Jahedi M. , Relationship between Particle Size and Deformation in the Cold Spray Process , Appl. Surf. Sci. , Vol 256 (No. 6 ), 2010 , p 1735 – 1738 10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.09.104 5.40 Ichikawa Y...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... crystal recovery IF A METAL IS DEFORMED at room temperature, or up to approximately 0.3 T m (where T m is the absolute scale melting point), the microstructure becomes severely deformed due to cold working, also known as work hardening or strain hardening. During cold working, most of the energy...