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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... and their relevance in design and manufacturing. It begins with a review of compositional impurities, the physical arrangement of atoms in solid solution, and the factors that determine maximum solubility. It then describes different types of structural imperfections, including point, line, and planar defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...Common failure modes in deformation processing Table 1 Common failure modes in deformation processing Temperature regime Metallurgical defects in: Cast grain structure Wrought (recrystallized) grain structure Cold working (a) Free surface fracture, dead metal zones (shear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... by inclusion defects. 2% nital. 200×. (g) SAE 1144 steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite where cracking is aided by inclusion defects. Unetched. 100×. Fig. 9.14 (Part 3) Micrographs of cracks. (h) SAE 8630 steel as quenched; microstructure is martensite where cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...) SEM image of a cross section through the defect site. Fig. 7 (a) Optical image, (b) and (c) fixed phase lock-in thermal images of an IC with a permanently applied supply voltage and a triggered control input. (c) is a contrast-enhanced presentation of (b) Fig. 8 (a) Optical image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... with a block fail. Figure 9 Bitmap examples of a fail that is caused by a logic problem in the periphery. Figure 10 Laser scanning localization setup with synchronous input. Figure 11 Soft Defect Localization (SDL) Laser scanning localization setup with a fast pin-electronics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... team can reach is that it missed something in its analysis or that the design is defective. This chapter focuses on the latter possibility by discussing the various factors that a failure analysis team should consider to identify the causes of defects in system design. These include requirements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract In a perfect crystalline structure, there is an orderly repetition of the lattice in every direction in space. Real crystals contain a considerable number of imperfections, or defects, that affect their physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Defects play...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Point defects: A, interstitial atom; B, vacancy; C, foreign atom in lattice site Fig. 7 Section through an edge dislocation (indicated by the symbol ⊥) with an axis perpendicular to the plane of the illustration and line dislocation. (a) Positive edge dislocation, (b) negative edge dislocation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter identifies the primary causes of service failures and discusses the types of defects from which they stem. It presents more than a dozen examples of failures attributed to such causes as design defects, material defects, and manufacturing or processing defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...Abstract Abstract Boiler tube failures associated with material defects are often the result of poor quality control, whether in primary production, on-site fabrication, storage and handling, or installation. This chapter examines quality-related failures stemming from compositional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... discusses the steps in the primary processing of stainless steels: melting, refining, remelting, casting, and hot rolling. It provides information of the major categories of defects in hot rolled stainless steels, namely hot mill defects, inclusion-related defects, and hot ductility-related defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides readers with worked solutions to more than 25 problems related to compositional impurities and structural defects. The problems deal with important issues and challenges such as the design of low-density steels, the causes and effects of distortion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the melting and conversion of superalloys and the solidification challenges they present. Superalloys have high solute content which can lead to untreatable defects if they solidify too slowly. These defects, called freckles, are highly detrimental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... dissipates into the ground plane. Figure 5 Through scan mode of the test vehicle after reflow simulation: onsets of delamination in the corners of the die are observed (red arrows) [15] Figure 6 Virtual cross section examples of package-level defects that are commonly imaged with 3D X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Figure 2 Principle of lock-in thermography (LIT). Figure 3 Schematic of a stacked die device (top). The phase shift to frequency characteristic (bottom) is calculated and measured enabling a fingerprinting of the defect site related to the die level [4] , [5] . Figure 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... defect (vacancies, interlattice atoms, substitutional and interstitial foreign atoms) Fig. 4.6 Dislocation = linear lattice defect. (a) Edge dislocation. (b) Screw dislocation [ Wie 86 ] Fig. 4.7 Grain boundary structure. (a) Low angle boundary. (b) High angle boundary [ Alt 94 , Sch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...-hardened workpieces Table 13.4 Remedial actions for nonconformance of cracks found in induction-hardened workpieces Nonconformance Remedial action Seams, laps, or other defects as received Inspect parts before induction hardening; review the material as received and segregate when possible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Fig. 1 Typical casting defects. (a) Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting. (b) Typical micrograph of gas porosity. Original magnification: 100×. (c) Micrograph of low alloy steel shrinkage crack. Original magnification: 7.5×. (d) Optical micrograph of a hot tear in a casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in the silicon substrate. All device layers have been milled away. The contrast from such defect is a result of disruption of crystallographic planes of single crystal silicon, in the vicinity the defect. Figure 13 A diffraction contrast (planar) TEM image of a stacking fault in active silicon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Types of Parts Used to Create Counterfeits Table 1 Types of Parts Used to Create Counterfeits Types of parts Sources and attributes Excess inventories Sources: OEMs 4 , Contract manufacturers Attributes: handling, packaging, and storage related damage; defects due to aging...