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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Many defects generate excessive heat during operation; this is due to the power dissipation associated with the excess current flow at the defect site. There are several thermal detection techniques for failure analysis and this article focuses on infrared thermography with lock...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... Fig. 1 Types of intrinsic point defects: vacancy and interstitial Fig. 2 Schottky, Frenkel, and antisite defects in an ionic crystal Fig. 3 (a) Atom arrangements in an edge dislocation. (b) Illustration of Burgers vector derived from the RH/SF (right-hand/start-to-finish...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapter explains how to recognize decarburization and related defects. It includes images showing how decarburization appears in various steels, discusses stock removal practices, and describes common defects and flaws such as quench cracks and where they are typically found...
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Published: 01 November 2019
Fig 22 Plan view EBIC shows a top view of a stripe after aging. Defects originate at cleaving cracks at the bottom, and travel up and to the left. Once the defects cross the stripe, they quickly cause catastrophic failure. A drawing of this laser is also shown in figure 4 (after [4] ). More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Fig. 14 Open defects in a sequential circuit. More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 2 Photographs of two defects that behaved as “IDDQ-only” failures. (a) Extra polysilicon that shorted two input to a NOR gate. (b) Gate oxide short on the input of an XOR gate. More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 3 Virtual cross section examples of package-level defects that are commonly imaged with 3D X-ray Microscopy tools [13] . More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 38 Flip chip images showing bump defects. (A) UHF PE-SAM image. Defective bumps have a “snowman” appearance (arrows). (B) SEM image of cross-sectioned bumps corresponding to the bumps outlined by the box in “A”. Arrows point to the same bumps in both “A” and “B”. The cross-section More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 8 (A) Schematic of a two-die stacked device with thermal defects “A” and “B” at different die levels, (B) amplitude images of a defect at the upper die at the indicated frequencies extracted from the data of a 1 Hz LIT-TRTR measurement, and (C) related phase shift to frequency More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 6 Virtual cross section examples of package-level defects that are commonly imaged with 3D X-ray Microscopy tools [21] . More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 23 The left image of crystal defects is darkfield illuminated, the right image is brightfield. Light scattering objects show up well against the dark background. More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 34 View of the identified seam defects in a bar sample of AISI 4140. Unetched. Original magnification: 100× More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 2.12 Point defects: A, interstitial atom; B, vacancy; C, foreign atom in lattice site More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 5.8 Polishing defects: A—comets; B—brown stains; C—halos surrounding small pores in the sample. More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.6 Optical micrographs showing defects on the inner surface of type 304 stainless steel pipe (a) near weld root and (b) near through-crack. Original magnification of both: 1000× More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.9 Relationship between stress amplitude and minimum depth of surface defects for 12% Cr steel and a 2.0% NiCrMoV steel. Source: Ref 1.22 More
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Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 1 Typical casting defects. (a) Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting. (b) Typical micrograph of gas porosity. Original magnification: 100×. (c) Micrograph of low alloy steel shrinkage crack. Original magnification: 7.5×. (d) Optical micrograph of a hot tear in a casting More
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Published: 01 November 2011
Fig. 5.26 Effect of volumetric defects on fatigue: (a) slag inclusion in butt weld, and cracking from weld toe; (b) porosity in butt weld, and cracking from weld toe; and (c) transverse groove welds containing porosity. Source: Ref 5.11 More
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Published: 01 November 2011
Fig. 10.8 Fastener installation defects in polymer-matrix composites. (a) In conjunction with unshimmed gap conditions. Source: Ref 10.4 More