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dark-field illumination

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... the objective lens, while the other rays are reflected back through the lens. Thus, the scratch appears dark, while the remaining surface is bright. Fig. 5.39 Sketch of a ray diagram showing dark-field illumination. Note that light rays impinging on a scratch on the specimen surface are reflected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... include bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized-light microscopy, interference and contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The chapter also provides a discussion of sample preparation materials such as dyes, etchants, and stains for the analysis of composite materials using...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... the difference between amplitude and optical-phase features and how they are revealed using appropriate illumination methods. It compares images obtained using bright field and dark field illumination, polarized and cross-polarized light, and interference-contrast techniques. It also discusses the use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... particle in a stainless steel weld. Differential interference contrast used to delineate the structure of the inclusion and surrounding stainless steel matrix. Unetched. 500× Fig. 8.55 Enamel coating on a low-carbon steel. (a) Bright-field illumination and (b) dark-field illumination. Note...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... in composite materials. bright-field illumination composite materials dark-field illumination epi-fluorescence microcrack analysis polarized light microscopy The formation of microcracks in composite materials may arise from static-, dynamic-, impact-, or fatigue-loading situations and also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... of the fillets attached to the core walls that were removed during failure. Fig. 13.5 Micrographs of an unprepared honeycomb sandwich composite structure after climbing drum peel testing showing the adhesive surface after failure and the separated honeycomb core. Dark-field illumination, 65 mm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... glass fiber fabric composite revealing a multiphase-matrix morphology. Ultrathin section, transmitted-light phase contrast, 20× objective. (b) Kevlar (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) fabric composite cross section. Dark-field illumination, 25× objective. (c) Boron fiber polymeric-matrix composite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... 1 ). Fig. 5.1 Schematic illustration of lighting methods in metallographic optical microscopes: (a) oblique or inclined illumination; (b) normal illumination or illumination parallel to the optical axis—the most common method; (c) dark field illumination. On the other hand, depth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... microscope employing bright-field illumination. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 6 Example of an inverted metallurgical reflecting microscope for photomicroscopy (referred to as a metallograph). Courtesy of Nikon Inc. Source: Ref 1 Light Sources Microscopic Techniques All metallographs come...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... standards for nitrided case structure. (a) Desired nitrided case showing small amount of grain boundary nitride; acceptable for grade A. Dark field illumination. (b) Nitride case with some continuous grain boundary nitrides; maximum acceptable for grade A. Dark field illumination. (c) Nitride case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... be remounted to provide adequate handling of the microscopic sample. Polished cross-sectional mounts can be examined with a variety of microscopy techniques, including polarized light, bright- and dark-field illumination, and epi-fluorescence. The damage characteristics depend on many factors, including...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... illumination. (b) Nitride case with some continuous grain boundary nitrides; maximum acceptable for grade A. Dark field illumination. (c) Nitride case with an increase in continuous grain boundary nitride; maximum acceptable for grades A and B tooth tip. Dark field illumination. (d) Nitride case with complete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.9781627083492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... In darkfield, objects illuminated from outside the field reflect light into the field of view, appearing bright against a dark field. In brightfield the field is illuminated, and objects tend to reflect light out of the field, and so appear dark. Figure 25 Crossed polarizers extinguish light vectors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... in many cameras, including digital cameras, can be used. Size and Resolution Lighting Reflections and Glare Surface Relief Depth of Field Lighting Arrangements Extremely clean and low residual steels can be very hard to etch with a sufficient intensity to produce a good macrograph...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... a rough surface depending on the etchant and the alloy composition. Surface roughness will make the anodic constituent appear dark under bright-field illumination. If etching is continued beyond the time required to delineate the structure clearly, the phase that was initially anodic may undergo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... contrast of the microscope image as affected by illumination mode. (a) Bright field: Visual contrast reflects local difference in both gray level and color, reveals phase constituents. (b) Dark field: Visual contrast in black and white reveals step changes in the crystallographic orientation. (c...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... electroluminescence (EL) is also visible during thermal imaging. Performing locking imaging with a pulsed bias and no illumination gives lock-in EL. Performing lock-in imaging with pulsed bias and illumination gives a thermal reflectance image. Combine pulses of current and light gives images in bright field, thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Reflectivity, color, phase contrast, bright field/dark field, polarization Sample loading Slow – requires vacuum Fast – no vacuum Sample preparation May require sectioning or delayering, Insulating samples may need sputter coating Usually none - dielectrics are transparent, No problem with insulating...