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current density

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... as a function of current density or charge transfer in a given area. The chapter explains how to measure and plot electrode potentials and currents and how to interpret the resulting polarization curves. It also discusses the effects of concentration gradients, explaining how they cause diffusion and, in some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... and current densities, polarization characteristics, and physical variables such as anode-to-cathode area ratios and fluid velocity. It also discusses the effect of corrosion inhibitors, galvanic coupling, and external currents, making extensive use of polarization curves. chemical kinetics corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., the elementary electrochemical corrosion circuit, using it to explain how electric potential differences drive the corrosion process and how corrosion rates vary in proportion to current density. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the importance of corrosion products, such as oxides and hydroxides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on the processes and procedures used in electrolytic polishing. It lists important process parameters, including time, temperature, voltage, and current density, as well as the recipes of electrolytic solutions used. The information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... suspended in an electrolytic solution. It describes how corrosion potentials and current densities are measured and explains how to deal with various sources of error. It also explains how electrochemical impedance measurements are used and describes the underlying theory and procedures in some detail...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...: Ref 2 Fig. 2.7 (a) Ratios of object thickness, a , and reference depth, d . Dashed lines: exponential decay; solid lines: net current. (b) Net heating curves. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 2.3 Effect of hysteresis on heating rate. N: north; S: south; B: flux density in a ferromagnetic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... or magnetic particle inspection. Other nondestructive testing methods for P/M applications also include electrical resistivity testing, eddy current, and magnetic bridge testing, magnetic particle inspection, ultrasonic testing, x-ray radiography, gas permeability testing, and gamma-ray (γ-ray) density...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... , Variable Corrosion Resistance of 18 Chromium-8 Nickel Stainless Steels: Influence of Environmental and Metallurgical Factors , Corrosion , Vol 26 , 1970 , p 533 – 538 When anodic polarization measurements are extended to progressively higher potentials, several potential versus current-density...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... et al . Scanning magnetoresistive microscopy for die-level sub-micron current density mapping . In Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Testing and Failure Analysis , 2003 . [32] Vallett D. et al . High resolution backside gmr magnetic microscopy on contour-milled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...* 95,485* A* ρ Fe ). Here, M Fe and ρ Fe are molar mass and density of iron, respectively. It is often the thickness loss (referred to as penetration per unit time) that is useful; therefore, i/A is often replaced by j , which is defined as current density and has the units amperes/square meters...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ), contains guidelines on the appropriate cathodic current densities for different locations throughout the world. There are two types of cathodic protection: sacrificial-anode (passive) systems and impressed-current (active) systems. Sacrificial-anode systems are simpler. They require only a material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and 3 . The concentration of various ionic species at the bottom of a model one-dimensional pit geometry was determined as a function of current density based on a material balance that considered generation of cations by dissolution, outward diffusion, and thermodynamic equilibrium of various reactions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... A major characteristic of these modes of corrosion is a large ratio of cathode area (areas in full contact with the bulk environment) to anode area (occluded region). As a consequence, the current density and, hence, the corrosion rate over the occluded area is very large. Exceptions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... at wavelengths less than the bandgap. Electroluminescence (EL) imaging is perhaps the most commonly used for failure analysis because the intensity is proportional to both carrier lifetime (EL efficiency) and current density. Poor contacts and non-uniform current can easily be detected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... 2 /H + and Zn/Zn 2+ ). The intersection point at which the reduction of hydrogen and the oxidation of the metal produce the same current density corresponds to the corrosion current and corrosion potential. It should be pointed out that for a given environment, there is no relationship between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... circuits or current arising from standing wave reflections due to opens [6] . Magnetic field images are then transformed into current density images which typically show higher gradients inherent in localized narrow current paths or dissolution of current density where narrower paths dissipate to much...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... (a) Weight loss (b) , % Hours to 1% stain (c) Current density (d) mA/cm 2 303 SFN-Cr 18-N11-64 SS-303N1-25 6.4 20 N/A 1.5 (200–500) 25 303 SFAN-Cr 18-N11-66 SS-303N2-35 6.6 20 N/A N/A 16 303 SFA-Cr 18-N11-70 SS-303L-12 (approx) 7.0 24 N/A N/A 9 (7) 304 SFN-Cr19-N10-64...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the arc, the electrodes are immersed into the molten beryl, and the heating is continued by passing the current directly through the bath. Energy consumption for fusion at 1600 to 1625 °C amounts to 1045 kWh per metric ton. This energy cost imposes the economic limit of the method to the use of high-grade...