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crystallization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
..., and how they respond to applied stresses and strains. The chapter makes extensive use of graphics to illustrate crystal lattice structures and related concepts such as vacancies and interstitial sites, ion migration, volume expansion, antisite defects, edge and screw dislocations, slip planes, twinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...Abstract Abstract Deformation within a crystal lattice is governed principally by the presence of dislocations, which are two-dimensional defects in the lattice structure. Slip from shear stress is the most common deformation mechanism within crystalline lattices of metallic materials, although...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...Characteristics of aluminum and silicon crystals Table 1.1 Characteristics of aluminum and silicon crystals Element Crystal lattice Elementary cell Interatomic bonds α sJ ( Ref 4 ) Crystallization front topography System Pearson symbol symmetry Bravais lattice Strukturbericht...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... crystal structure Fig. 5.4 Twinning in high-purity titanium. The twins are the needlelike bands in the grains. In some instances, the twins extend entirely across a grain. Etchant: 10%HF-5%HNO 3 . Original magnification: 250x Fig. 5.5 Twinning planes in titanium. Although most twinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... increases. In 1 metal bcc transforms to fcc as temperature increases. Characteristics of the seven different crystal systems Table 1 Characteristics of the seven different crystal systems Crystal system Edge length Interaxial angle Triclinic a ≠ b ≠ c α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90° Monoclinic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., neutral state 1 s 2 , 2 s 2 , 2 p 6 , 3 s 2 , 3 p 6 , 3 d 2 , 4 s 2 Absorption cross section for thermal neutrons 5.6 barns Crystal structure      α to 885 °C (1625 °F) hexagonal close-packed c = 4.6832 Å, a = 2.9504 Å, c / a = 1.5873      β 885 °C (1625 °F) to melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... 81 ] Fig. 4.8 Twinned grains and twin boundary Fig. 4.9 Basic types of phase diagram. a, melt; b, melt + solid crystals; c, solid solution (homogeneous); d, two different crystals (heterogeneous); E, eutectic point; P, peritectic point [ Wie 86 ] Fig. 4.10 Structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter introduces many of the key concepts on which metallurgy is based. It begins with an overview of the atomic nature of matter and the forces that link atoms together in crystal lattice structures. It discusses the types of imperfections (or defects) that occur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides a thorough review of the crystal structure of beryllium and its elastic, thermal, and nuclear properties. It also includes information on electrical and optical properties and an extensive amount of data in the form of tables and plots. beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the properties and applications of beryllium intermetallic compounds. It describes the crystal structure of key beryllides, the metals they contain, and important properties such as high-temperature strength, thermal conductivity and expansion, oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... contacts the substrate. The rest of the assembly contains collecting and magnifying optical elements. Figure 23 The left image of crystal defects is darkfield illuminated, the right image is brightfield. Light scattering objects show up well against the dark background. Figure 24...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... surface temperature is 52.0 °C), (c) sample coated with black paint, I = 100 mA (actual surface temperature is 55.4 °C). Fig. 4 Scheme of the Lock-in Thermography correlation (0° signal): (a) conventional and (b) undersampling. Figure 12 Example image made using K-18 liquid crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter provides perspective on the physical dimensions associated with the microstructure of steel and the instruments that reveal grain size, morphology, phase distributions, crystal defects, and chemical composition, from which properties and behaviors derive. The chapter also reviews...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes the ferritic microstructures that form in carbon steels under continuous cooling conditions. It begins with a review of the Dubé classification system for crystal morphologies. It then explains how cooling-rate-induced changes involving carbon atom diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... on crystalline structure, providing information on space lattices and crystal systems, hexagonal close-packed systems, and face-centered and body-centered cubic systems. The chapter then covers slip systems and closes with a brief section on allotropic transformations that occur at a constant temperature during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract In a perfect crystalline structure, there is an orderly repetition of the lattice in every direction in space. Real crystals contain a considerable number of imperfections, or defects, that affect their physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Defects play...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract Steels are over 95% Fe, so a good starting point for understanding steel is to study the nature of solid iron. This chapter provides information on the composition, phase transformation, and associated changes in the crystal structure of pure iron at varying temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... and the relative levels of force they produce. It describes the difference between crystalline and noncrystalline or amorphous materials and discusses common crystal structures, including face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, and diamond cubic. It also describes the structure of sodium...