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crystal specimen

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... polymer is determined by the time—temperature path followed on cooling from the molten state. In some cases, minute single crystals have been obtained by crystallization from very dilute solutions. In PET, stretching an amorphous specimen produces small crystallites oriented along the stress axis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...-Scherrer powder method uses an x-ray beam of constant wavelength and a specimen consisting of thousands of tiny crystals. Since there are a large number of powder particles with many different orientations, the diffracted beam produces a cone of radiation. Different reflection cones are recorded on a film...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... microstructural features within volumes of steel specimens made thin enough to permit the passage of incident high energy electron beams. Images are produced by electron diffraction from the crystal structures of the features, and diffraction patterns that identify crystal types and orientation are generated...
Image
Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 4.32 The thermal conductivity of Al 2 O 3 crystals with rough and smooth surfaces. □, •, -⋄- = specimens with smooth surfaces; ○, Δ, ▿ = specimens with rough surfaces. • = batch a; ○ = batch b; □, -⋄-, Δ, ▿ = batch c ( Berman, 1976 ). More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... peel. allotriomorph. A particle of a phase that has no regular external shape. allotriomorphic crystal. A crystal whose lattice structure is normal, but whose outward shape is imperfect, because it is determined to some extent by the surroundings; the grains in a metallic aggregate are allotriomorphic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... For example, in a specimen with a ferritic microstructure, each neighboring ferrite grain has a different crystal lattice orientation, as discussed in Chapter 2 , where each ferrite grain is a single crystal of body-centered cubic iron. Each ferrite grain etches at a different rate, depending on its...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to zero. Fractography of the upper bainitic specimens showed, except at initiation at the notch root, that the fracture surface consisted entirely of cleavage fracture ( Fig. 6.15b ), a result attributed to the coarse interlath carbides and common cleavage plane of the parallel ferrite crystal in packets...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... martensite crystals containing a high density of dislocations and interlath retained austenite. Tensile testing at room temperature of specimens with as-quenched martensitic microstructures showed ductile deformation behavior at all strain rates ( Fig. 18.5 ) but with somewhat reduced ductility at the lowest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... of titanium. Understanding their meaning is especially helpful when reading graphs and figures in the general published literature involving titanium. Symbols Table I.1 Symbols Symbol Description α Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure in Ti-base alloys α′ Solute-lean, hcp...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... diagrams that illustrate dendritic crystal solidification and some of the phenomena that accompany solidification. Figures 9.15 and 9.16 show actual rounded tips of dendrite branches that were revealed adjacent to shrinkage porosity in specimens taken from the equiaxed zone of an as-cast stirred billet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... carbon steels consists of ferrite; therefore, an understanding of the response of ferritic microstructures to stress is essential to understanding the performance of carbon steels. The body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure of ferrite has 48 slip systems, as described in Chapter 3, “Phases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... is often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation), but never involves a change in chemical composition of the metal or alloy. allotriomorphic crystal. A crystal whose lattice structure is normal but whose external surfaces are not bounded by regular crystal faces; rather, the external...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... are then withdrawn from the furnace and immediately quenched into salt baths maintained at a given intermediate temperature. The specimen is held in the salt bath for a precise time and then quenched in a water bath maintained at room temperature. This procedure is shown in Fig. 15.1 . At each intermediate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
.... cell. (1) A building block forming a grain or crystal. The cell (or unit cell ) is composed of a small number of atoms arranged in any of sev eral different configurations, depending on the metal. The most common are cubic (with an atom at each corner); body-centeredcubic (same as cubic, but also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... Fig. 10.1 Endurance limit predictions for various steels based on calorimetric rise of temperature measurements. Data from Ref 10.5 Fig. 10.2 Bubble raft apparatus for study of “crystal” subjected to reverse shear. Source: Ref 10.6 Fig. 10.3 Photoelastic-coating method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., Å, is commonly used; one angstrom = 0.1 nm). When the monochromatic beam strikes the sample, some of the x-rays are diffracted from certain planes of the crystal lattice of the specimen, and the angles at which they are diffracted are unique to the spacing of the atoms that are present in the crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... of ultrathin sections. Control the thickness of the thin section or polymer film. A specimen such as a polyamide with very fine crystal features (i.e., for example, less than 15 μm) and high birefringence requires ultrathin sections for optimal resolution and contrast. The presence of very fine-grained...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... concepts, including solubility, critical temperature, dislocation defects, slip, and diffusion, and how they affect the microstructure, properties, and behaviors of steel. austenite cementite crystal imperfection crystal structure diffusion ferrite iron-carbon equilibrium diagram...