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crystal lattice structure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The building block of all matter, including metals, is the atom. This chapter initially provides information on atomic bonding and the crystal structure of metals and alloys, followed by a description of three crystal lattice structures of metals: face-centered cubic, hexagonal close...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter introduces many of the key concepts on which metallurgy is based. It begins with an overview of the atomic nature of matter and the forces that link atoms together in crystal lattice structures. It discusses the types of imperfections (or defects) that occur in the crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract Deformation within a crystal lattice is governed principally by the presence of dislocations, which are two-dimensional defects in the lattice structure. Slip from shear stress is the most common deformation mechanism within crystalline lattices of metallic materials, although...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... structure, providing information on space lattices and crystal systems, hexagonal close-packed systems, and face-centered and body-centered cubic systems. The chapter then covers slip systems and closes with a brief section on allotropic transformations that occur at a constant temperature during either...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... temperature gradient in the liquid alloy. Source: Ref 4 , 7 Crystal structure orientation in the dendrite grains relative to their growth direction is determined by its lattice symmetry and physical properties of its surface. Anisotropy of the surface tension and the instabilities at the growing tip...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... structure PLASTICS are so prevalent in our lives that it is easy to overlook the vast differences in their properties and how specialized many polymers have become. Consider the differences between aramid bulletproof vests and the polyurethane foam used in pillows. Why can plates made of crystallized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract In a perfect crystalline structure, there is an orderly repetition of the lattice in every direction in space. Real crystals contain a considerable number of imperfections, or defects, that affect their physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Defects play an...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... includes tabular information and data on the intermetallic phases in the aluminum corner of the equilibrium phase diagram, the characteristics of the crystal lattice of intermetallic phases, the chemical composition of the alloy intermetallic phases, and equilibrium reactions in the alloy system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... O 3 crystal structure, and □ represents the vacant iron lattice sites. E: (Eq 5.5) Fe 2 O 3 + 5 H 2 O → 2 FeO 4 = + 10 H + + 6 e The onset of passivity is associated with reaction C, which results in a layer having the sequence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of alloying and their practical application in the production of titanium mill products and engineered parts. It begins with a review of the atomic and crystal structure of titanium and the conditions for interstitial and substitutional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... between the existing solvent atoms on the crystalline structure. However, the only solute atoms small enough to fit into the interstices of metal crystals are hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, and boron. The other small-diameter atoms, such as oxygen, tend to form compounds with metals rather than dissolve in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... be classified into those that are crystalline and those that are not. A crystal structure is one that repeats itself over long distances. Most solids are crystal structures, or crystalline. The atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in repeating three-dimensional patterns or lattices. The smallest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... for the solute to fit in the lattice. However, carbon is almost insoluble in alpha iron—ranging from only 0.008 wt% near room temperature to a maximum solubility limit of 0.02 wt% at 727 °C (1340 °F) ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 1 Crystal structure and lattice spacing of iron atoms with (a) body-centered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... liquids is still rapid, it is much slower than in gases, and in solids, it is even slower. In solids, atomic movements are restricted by the crystal lattice. However, thermal vibrations in solids allow atoms to diffuse, and as the temperature increases, the vibrations of the atoms about their equilibrium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This appendix provides crystal structure and property data for alloying elements used in superalloys. alloying elements atomic radius atomic weight density interatomic distance lattice constant melting point Table B.1 Properties of common superalloy alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... grain structure, as in columnar-grained alloys, or by the elimination of grain boundaries as with single-crystal superalloys. dispersion strengthening precipitation hardening solid-solution hardening superalloys SUPERALLOYS ARE STRENGTHENED through three principal mechanisms: solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... called a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, and the geometric arrangement of atoms is often called a bcc lattice. Notice that the crystal lattice can be envisioned as three sets of intersecting planes of atoms, with each plane set parallel to one face of the cube. Iron with a bcc structure is called...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... atoms are regularly organized in a lattice, forming a crystal. The way the atoms are organized in a metal or in an alloy determines several properties of the metal. Ferrous alloys having the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, for instance, are nonmagnetic, whereas alloys with the body-centered cubic...