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crystal lattice

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...Abstract Abstract Deformation within a crystal lattice is governed principally by the presence of dislocations, which are two-dimensional defects in the lattice structure. Slip from shear stress is the most common deformation mechanism within crystalline lattices of metallic materials, although...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... twinned grains and recrystallized grains along original grain boundaries that result from working during metallographic polishing. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of the 14 different lattices Fig. 3 Face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure Fig. 4 Hexagonal close...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter introduces many of the key concepts on which metallurgy is based. It begins with an overview of the atomic nature of matter and the forces that link atoms together in crystal lattice structures. It discusses the types of imperfections (or defects) that occur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... for a given metal-environment system usually can only be inferred. It goes on to describe how such curves are constructed, demonstrating the procedures for a wide range of alloys and environments. The examples also show how factors such as alloy concentration, crystal lattice orientation, temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Al 7 Cr, Al 13 Cr 2 , θ 4 , 5 , 7 , 8 θ Cr Al 3 Cr, ν ν Cr Al 9 Cr 4 , αAl 9 Cr 4 , βAl 9 Cr 4 , γAl 9 Cr 4 α Cr , β Cr , γ Cr Al 8 Cr 5 , αAl 8 Cr 5 , βAl 8 Cr 5 8 , 10 , 11 … Characteristics of the crystal lattice of intermetallic phases in the Al-Cr system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
..., and how they respond to applied stresses and strains. The chapter makes extensive use of graphics to illustrate crystal lattice structures and related concepts such as vacancies and interstitial sites, ion migration, volume expansion, antisite defects, edge and screw dislocations, slip planes, twinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...Characteristics of aluminum and silicon crystals Table 1.1 Characteristics of aluminum and silicon crystals Element Crystal lattice Elementary cell Interatomic bonds α sJ ( Ref 4 ) Crystallization front topography System Pearson symbol symmetry Bravais lattice Strukturbericht...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract In a perfect crystalline structure, there is an orderly repetition of the lattice in every direction in space. Real crystals contain a considerable number of imperfections, or defects, that affect their physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Defects play...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... on crystalline structure, providing information on space lattices and crystal systems, hexagonal close-packed systems, and face-centered and body-centered cubic systems. The chapter then covers slip systems and closes with a brief section on allotropic transformations that occur at a constant temperature during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ). This increase in distortion, or strain, creates barriers to dislocation movement. The distortion energy causes some hardening and strengthening of the alloy and is called solid-solution hardening. The solute atoms have a different size than the host atoms, which alters the crystal lattice. As a result, a moving...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... solution with the Cu atoms substituting for Al atoms in the crystal lattice. But the solubility decreased to 2% at 300 °C (572 °F); extrapolating the solubility line to 100 °C, the solubility was only 1%. The quenched alloy of 4% Cu held 3% Cu in supersaturated solution, which was unstable at room...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...) Complete displacement across part of crystal. (d) Complete displacement across entire crystal The atoms in each metal part are normally arranged into many different individual crystals ( grains ). The configuration structure of the crystal lattice and the distance between the atoms in the crystal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the motion in liquids is still rapid, it is much slower than in gases, and in solids, it is even slower. In solids, atomic movements are restricted by the crystal lattice. However, thermal vibrations in solids allow atoms to diffuse, and as the temperature increases, the vibrations of the atoms about...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... is called a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, and the geometric arrangement of atoms is often called a bcc lattice. Notice that the crystal lattice can be envisioned as three sets of intersecting planes of atoms, with each plane set parallel to one face of the cube. Iron with a bcc structure is called...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... of solute atoms to high-energy sites such as dislocations, dislocation tangles, and vacancies within the crystal lattice producing distortion of lattice planes and forming concentrations of subcritical crystal nuclei. With continued exposure at aging temperature, these sites reach, or fail to reach...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... of vacancies in the crystal lattice. The basis of heat treatment relies on the fact that the solubility of carbon in austenite (fcc) is much higher than in ferrite (bcc) because the size of interstices that can accommodate carbon atoms are larger in the fcc structure. At room temperature, all carbon steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of any defects. Practically, defects that disrupt the atomic sequence are typically found within the crystal lattice. For example, if an aluminum atom replaced an iron atom in the ordered FeAl phase, the structure would be less than perfect. Therefore, a parameter, S , was established to quantify...