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crude unit

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter describes various units and process streams that are often susceptible corrosion inhibitors in crude oil refineries, discusses the types and applications of corrosion inhibitors, and provides some information on corrosion monitoring techniques used at refineries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... steels (AHSS) used in a vehicle. The discussion covers the major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, production routes for manufacturing crude steel, and an optimized index guideline for selecting the best material. Details on the benefits of AHSS on the life cycle of vehicles are provided. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... profitability that this new approach offers. It has capabilities to increase unit run time between major inspections, reduce the time and expense associated with turnaround or inline inspections, and reduce major upsets that cause most of the unplanned shutdowns. The end result is the ability to know on a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... crude oil in petroleum refining. Sulfur in fuel oils can vary from a fraction of a percent for lighter oils to 3.5% for some residual oils ( Ref 1 ). Two other corrosive constituents in fuel oils are vanadium and sodium. Vanadium exists in certain crude oils as an oil-soluble porphyrin complex ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... phase, typically tend to be less corrosive than corresponding natural gas transmission systems that carry water vapor in the gas phase. Under normal operating conditions, gas transmission pipelines carry undersaturated gas processed by upstream dehydrating units. These pipelines are generally operated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... and knocking over the Boston elevated railway structure. Several rapid brittle failures have occurred in structures such as tanks, pressure vessels, ships, and bridges in the United States, Canada, and Europe. The problem was fully appreciated in the 1940s when out of 5000 merchant ships built during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... corrosion. In refineries, many reactor vessels, such as crude towers, hydrocrackers, and hydrodesulfurizers, are made of clad plates with a corrosion-resistant cladding in original installations. Cladding can be corroded after years of operation. One common approach is to refurbish the corroded vessels by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... (500 and 1000 °F). Sulfur compounds originating from crude oils include polysulfides, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, aliphatic sulfides, disulfides, and so forth ( Ref 35 ). Sulfidation occurs in some processing units where no hydrogen is present in the system, such as crude distillation units. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., it is possible to choose a material that can withstand attack from the environment indefinitely. One of the first major uses of stainless steel in architecture was in New York’s Chrysler building, completed in 1930. Despite the rather crude methods of early production, limited alloy options, and lack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... number of pipelines that are continually in service as a primary means of transportation. A buried operating pipeline is rather unobtrusive and rarely makes its presence known except at valves, pumping or compressor stations, or terminals. In the United States, there were approximately 217,000 km...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... low-strength refinery pressure vessels has been attributed to SOHIC ( Ref 2.7 ). Although most often associated with welds that have not been stress relieved, cracking in other regions of concentrated stresses has occurred. First observed in low-strength sour crude oil pipelines, cracking is believed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... Production of titanium ores and concentrates is approaching 10 million metric tons. Current and historic production and data on titanium are maintained by the United States Government ( Ref 1.3 , 1.4 , 1.5 ). The element titanium was discovered in England by the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... corrosion prevention during 2012 will cost approximately $961 billion in the United States alone. Although these numbers may now be somewhat inaccurate, the staggering figures show that corrosion is enormously costly to society. In some cases, corrosion can result in catastrophic failures that lead to loss...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... materials Control of the environment Traditionally, carbon and low-alloy steels were virtually the only metals used in the production of oil and gas. This resulted from the fact that very large quantities of metal are required in petroleum production, and, until a few years ago, crude oil and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... structure, beryl ore is very resistant to acid attack at atmospheric pressure and from intermediate temperatures up to its boiling temperature. The complex structure of the mineral contains [Si 6 O 18 ] 12– units, each consisting of six SiO 4 4 − tetrahedra linked in a ring. In beryl...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... elongate the same amount, because the actual force applied to the thick rod is now larger than that applied to the thin rod by an amount proportional to its larger area. Because stress is force per area, it has units of pounds per square inch (psi), or, more commonly, kpsi. The symbol “k” for kilo means...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Cathodic protection was first suggested by Sir Humphrey Davy in the 1820s as a means of controlling corrosion on British naval ships ( Ref 1 ). It became common in the 1930s on the Gulf Coast of the United States, where it was used to control the corrosion of pipelines carrying high-pressure natural gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and nickel alloys. Hydrometallurgy processes include electro-refining and electrowinning, both of which are electrolytic processes used to produce pure nickel cathode sheet. In the electrofining process, a nickel electrolytic refining cell, consisting of a slab of crude nickel to be refined (anode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... thinning Failure was noticed in the waterwall tube in a waste heat boiler of a fluidized catalytic cracker unit after about 8 years of service. The MOC of the tube was SA 210 Grade A1 HFS, and the tube dimensions were 50.8 mm (2 in.) OD and 4.06 mm (0.16 in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... user planning to employ titanium should know what can be possible with this metal system. The advanced materials and technologies mentioned in this chapter, for the most part, owe their current status to the support of the United States government. Many initial titanium metallurgy concepts were brought...