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crude oil refineries

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter describes various units and process streams that are often susceptible corrosion inhibitors in crude oil refineries, discusses the types and applications of corrosion inhibitors, and provides some information on corrosion monitoring techniques used at refineries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... refinery (crude oil) heater comparing alloy 657 to HH and HK alloys. Source: Ref 2 The furnace was fired with a mixture of fuel oil (about 50%) and gas. The ash analysis showed 48% V 2 O 5 and 2% Na 2 O. Tube supports were exposed to temperatures up to 900 °C (1650 °F). The tube supports made...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... materials Control of the environment Traditionally, carbon and low-alloy steels were virtually the only metals used in the production of oil and gas. This resulted from the fact that very large quantities of metal are required in petroleum production, and, until a few years ago, crude oil and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... compared to martensitic steel gives it a decided advantage in terms of rupture resistance, which is a major design and political concern with this potentially explosive commodity. Corrosion resistance is a major factor in the choice of materials in refinery operations. As we discussed, crude oil itself...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... cost-savings over conventionally used nickel alloys. For nonaqueous conditions involving exposure to high-temperature sulfidic or naphthenic crude oil environments, resistance to corrosion has been mainly related to simply the sum of the chromium and molybdenum concentration ( Ref 12 ). Cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... (500 and 1000 °F). Sulfur compounds originating from crude oils include polysulfides, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, aliphatic sulfides, disulfides, and so forth ( Ref 35 ). Sulfidation occurs in some processing units where no hydrogen is present in the system, such as crude distillation units. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... low-strength refinery pressure vessels has been attributed to SOHIC ( Ref 2.7 ). Although most often associated with welds that have not been stress relieved, cracking in other regions of concentrated stresses has occurred. First observed in low-strength sour crude oil pipelines, cracking is believed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Description Heavy industrial atmospheres These contain general industrial emissions such as sulfurous gases, corrosive mists, and fumes released from chemical plants and refineries. The most aggressive conditions are often found in places of intense industrial activity where the coating is frequently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...+ ) 77 (170) Ferric chloride 5 Boiling 25 Room Acetic acid/anhydride mixture Unknown 100–110 (212–230) Maleic anhydride Unknown 60 (140) Cornstarch slurry, pH 1.5 Unknown 49 (120) Seawater … Room Sugar liquor, pH 7 66–67 75 (167) Phthalic anhydride (crude) Unknown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... tubing. Titanium is also extensively used in oil refineries, paper and pulp bleaching operations, nitric acid plants, and certain organic synthesis production. Titanium has found use in the medical field. The largest use of titanium and titanium alloys as surgical implants has been for bone...