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crude oil refineries

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter describes various units and process streams that are often susceptible corrosion inhibitors in crude oil refineries, discusses the types and applications of corrosion inhibitors, and provides some information on corrosion monitoring techniques used at refineries...
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Published: 01 December 1989
Fig. 1.6. Generalized over-all refinery from crude oil to salable products (American Petroleum Institute, cited in Ref 6 ). More
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 11.20 Results of a field test at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 6 months in a refinery (crude oil) heater comparing alloy 657 to HH and HK alloys. Source: Ref 2 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and SCC resistance over that of 300-series austenitic stainless steels was needed, and with a cost-savings over conventionally used nickel alloys. For nonaqueous conditions involving exposure to high-temperature sulfidic or naphthenic crude oil environments, resistance to corrosion has been mainly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... suffered severe corrosion attack, but provided good protection up to that temperature ( Ref 2 ). Fig. 11.20 Results of a field test at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 6 months in a refinery (crude oil) heater comparing alloy 657 to HH and HK alloys. Source: Ref 2 Catalytic Reformer Heaters in a Refinery...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... and political concern with this potentially explosive commodity. Refinery Equipment Corrosion resistance is a major factor in the choice of materials in refinery operations. As we discussed, crude oil itself is sometimes a very corrosive fluid, but in refining the by-products, chemicals used in refining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... to the surface in various parts of the world, and people learned to use crude oil for things but not really as lubricants. Professor Dowson states that the Romans used crude oil for burning in lamps for illumination. The oils that we know and love did not really occur until approximately 1850, when oil wells...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
.... Fig. 1.6. Generalized over-all refinery from crude oil to salable products (American Petroleum Institute, cited in Ref 6 ). Fig. 1.3. Historical development of fossil-fired turbine-generators ( Ref 4 ). Fig. 1.4. Schematic diagram of a coal-fired steam power plant ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... that relate the acid number of the crude to oil wettability, and Fig. 11 snows corrosion rate as a function of produced water content for different crude oil/produced water mixtures. In oil systems, the water cut acts in synergy with the oil phase to determine the level of protection from the hydrocarbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... crude oils and gases that contain H 2 S are handled by most refineries. Hydrogen sulfide is also present in some feed-stocks handled by petrochemical plants. Fabricability Considerations With very few exceptions, process equipment and piping are fabricated by welding wrought steels. The shells...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the particular corrosion problems encountered and the methods of control used in petroleum production and the storage and transportation of oil and gas up to the refinery. It begins by describing those aspects of corrosion that tend to be unique to corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... hydrogen damage in petroleum refinery equipment (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t60490329-ref55">Ref 55</xref>) Table 7.5. Japanese experience with high-temperature hydrogen damage in petroleum refinery equipment ( Ref 55 ) Equipment Material Operating temperature, °C Hydrogen partial pressure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...). Sulfur compounds originating from crude oils include polysulfides, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, aliphatic sulfides, disulfides, and so forth ( Ref 35 ). Sulfidation occurs in some processing units where no hydrogen is present in the system, such as crude distillation units. The crude distillation units...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... A secondary superheater tube of a utility and off-site crude oil boiler had ruptured in a longitudinal direction after 5 years of service. The MOC of the tube was per SA 213 Grade T11, and the tube dimensions were 44.5 mm (1.75 in.) OD and 4.0 mm (0.15 in.) wall thickness. Investigation and Findings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the coating material to be used to protect a given metal from an environment usually determines the surface preparation required. Zinc-rich coatings, for example, almost always require blast cleaning, while some alkyd and oil-base coating systems can be applied over rust, mill scale, or a poorly cleaned...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... crude oil pipelines, cracking is believed to result when small hydrogen fissures in a steel link together under the action of hydrogen pressure within the fissures to form through-wall cracks ( Ref 2.7 , 2.24 ). 2.3.3 Sulfuric Acid Stress-corrosion cracking of steel in sulfuric acid solutions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... resistance of carbon steels, particularly in outdoor atmospheres. Commonly used coatings include the following: Rust-preventative temporary coatings, for example, oils containing rust inhibitors Organic coatings (paints and plastic or rubber linings) Hot-dip galvanized and electrogalvanized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.9781627083409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... periods of time between shutdowns, so on-stream monitoring techniques must also be used. In the petroleum industry, the internal corrosion in oil and gas production operations is often monitored with hydrogen probes ( Ref 20 ). These instruments measure hydrogen created by corrosion reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1