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creep deformation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...-alloy steel under tension at four stress levels at 600 °C (1112 °F). Source: Ref 2 Stage 3, or tertiary creep, is the gradual increase in strain prior to fracture. It may result from metallurgical changes within the metal that permit rapid increases in deformation, accompanied by work hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter compares and contrasts the high-temperature behaviors of metals and composites. It describes the use of creep curves and stress-rupture testing along with the underlying mechanisms in creep deformation and elevated-temperature fracture. It also discusses creep-life...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter introduces the concepts of mechanical properties and the various underlying metallurgical mechanisms that can be used to alter the strength of materials. The mechanical properties discussed include elasticity, plasticity, creep deformation, fatigue, toughness, and hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... strength is usually the limiting design factor. However, at high temperatures, permanent deformation can occur over a period of time at stresses well below the yield strength. This time-dependent deformation is known as creep and occurs at temperatures greater than approximately 0.3 to 0.5 of the absolute...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... also contributes significantly to high-temperature creep. Specific creep mechanisms are discussed in detail in Chapter 15, “Creep,” in this book. While slip is required to facilitate plastic deformation and therefore allow a metal to be formed into useful shapes, strengthening metals requires...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., grain-boundary sliding can occur. Creep forming, hot die forging, isothermal forging, and isothermal rolling are processes that rely in part on grain-boundary sliding and other thermally activated deformation mechanisms. The workability, or the ease with which a metal is shaped by plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... structure as a result of the anistropic nature of the large grains. However, coarse grains are beneficial for creep resistance in high-temperature alloys because they are more resistant to grain-boundary sliding and rotation. Fig. 8.24 Effect of grain size on cold-drawn brass sheet. Source: Ref 7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) work at higher temperatures than their base metal counterparts and can be engineered for improved strength, stiffness, thermal conductivity, abrasion and/or creep resistance, and dimensional stability. This chapter examines the properties, compositions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... rather low melting point (650 °C, or 1202 °F), which increases its susceptibility to elevated-temperature creep. However, through improved alloying techniques, the creep resistance of magnesium alloys has been significantly improved. The most important alloying additions are aluminum, zinc, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the deformed material, and minimizes springback. Titanium also tends to creep at elevated temperature, and therefore, creep forming, performed by holding the part under load at the forming temperature, is another alternative for achieving the desired shape without having to compensate for extensive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... changes during diffusion in a concentration gradient. Source: Ref 1 Diffusion plays an important role in many metallurgical processes, such as phase transformations, annealing, precipitation hardening, diffusion bonding, sintering, carburization of steels, and creep deformation. As an example...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, and vanadium. Tungsten and molybdenum are effective strengtheners but increase density and significantly degrade low-temperature ductility. However, the addition of as little as 6 at.% W doubles the creep strength of niobium. Tantalum provides moderate strengthening and does...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of aluminum and titanium not only provide solid-solution strengthening, they also form the basis for precipitation hardening. Slowly diffusing elements, such as molybdenum and tungsten, help in reducing creep at high temperatures. The most important precipitate in both nickel and iron-nickel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperature often implies some embrittling behavior, such the formation of brittle grain-boundary films or the segregation of impurities or inclusions at the grain boundaries. However, at temperatures high enough for creep to dominate, the grain boundaries become weaker than the grains themselves, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., niobium, tantalum, and aluminum, when in solution, are strong solution hardeners. The slower-diffusing elements, tungsten, niobium, tantalum, and molybdenum, are also effective alloying additives at temperatures above 0.6 T m , where diffusion-controlled creep strength becomes important. Iron, cobalt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperatures. An exception is mild steel, which exhibits a maximum in fatigue strength between 205 and 300 °C (400 and 575 °F) due to strain aging. As the temperature exceeds approximately half the melting point, T m , creep can become the dominant cause of failure. Ferrous alloys, which usually exhibit an...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... high-temperature service, the opposite is true, and some minimum amount of carbon is required for both tensile and creep-rupture strength. Low-carbon grades could only be produced by starting with low-carbon raw materials, specifically low-carbon ferrochrome. The expense of low-carbon ferrochrome meant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... number of high properties—density (11.32 g/cm 3 , or 0.41 lb/ in. 3 ), malleability, lubricity, electrical conductivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion—and some low properties—strength, creep resistance, elastic modulus, elastic limit, hardness, and melting point (327 °C, or 621 °F). The toxicity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Carbides delay softening during tempering. Added to minimize temper embrittlement. Enhances creep resistance of low-alloy steels at elevated temperatures Chromium Substitutional hardener. Forms carbides for good wear resistance. Retards softening during tempering. Enhances corrosion resistance and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... obtain better creep and stress-rupture capability, the alloys became increasingly difficult to forge. To allow even higher contents of alloying elements, it became necessary to change the fabrication process to casting. The original cast blades and vanes were fine-grained polycrystalline structures made...