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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... in England and America (1911–1912) Harry Brearley ( Fig. 3 ) is generally credited above all others as the initiator of the industrial era of stainless steel, and rightly so, at least as far as the hardenable chromium stainless steels are concerned. In 1912, while investigating the development of new...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... and stresses of components in GTEs. There is some debate as to who is the creator of the GTE, with some crediting Dr. Frank Stolze (1872), who filed a patent that described a device resembling the GTE, and others crediting Charles Curtis, who produced some working models in the early 1900s. Both Stolze’s paper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... In a paper presented in Paris in 1903, Léon Guillet reported that a metallurgist named Choubly had used vanadium additions to boost the resistance of carbon steels to shock, and to increase their strength. Henry Ford, who is credited with the development of vanadium alloy steels in the United States...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... seawater in offshore applications could do well on land as well. To give full credit, the pulp-and-paper industry was also beginning to employ duplex stainless steels for their processes. Type 316 stainless steel has passed from consideration as a material for handling brackish water or seawater...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... into place on the building’s exterior. Construction was simplified, and taller structures were possible. The Alcoa Building in Pittsburgh, constructed in 1952, is credited as the first such curtain wall building. The project was a showcase inside and out, with aluminum used in every conceivable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... was subsequently known as stainless steel is usually credited to Harry Brearley (1871–1940) ( Fig. 1 ), who produced the first commercial cast of a martensitic stainless steel, which at first was used for cutlery. The Discovery of Chromium (1797) In 1797, the French chemist Louis Nicholas Vauquelin (1753...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
... incident and to submit a complete report. This report will also inform the vendor as to the reference numbers to the incident, what the failure appears to be, what (if any) is the probable cause, what is expected in return (i.e., a report, an evaluation, a warranty claim, credit, etc.), and the name...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... the value of lightweight aluminum cars, especially for coal-fired power plants. They are dedicated to one route—mine to power plant—enhancing efficiency and lowering costs. The U.S. Department of Energy credits the use of aluminum freight cars for a measurable decrease in total CO 2 emissions produced...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
..., the forerunner of AISI 420, for cutlery. The alloy was a natural fit for hardened knives, and his employers were in Sheffield, England, the capital of tool and knife making. Brearley was credited with starting the first production of hardenable stainless. The British military found that Brearley’s alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... significantly and has been the key enabler of many state-of-the-art electronic products and emerging applications. Most credit for such advancement goes to the continuous scaling of transistors, which are not only the basic building blocks of IC components but essentially the heart of the components responsible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... the most likely cause. During the 1990 Gulf War, smart munitions received much of the credit for driving Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait. Smart munitions used laser target designators to guide them to their targets. The United States delayed Gulf War action for several weeks, however, because a key laser...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... to a temperature-uniformity survey (TUS) before being released to production. Have documented emergency evacuation plan for any fire or hazardous leak situation (ammonia leak). Credits Much of the materials used in this chapter are from the ISO program implemented by the author in the heat treating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... the prototype sampling program. The would include non-destructive examination techniques such as radiography, dimensional layout, hardness testing, etc. External Failure Costs are the credits against sales due to defective castings being shipped to customer’s plants, plus the in-house costs associated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... can be found in Chapters 8 and 9 . Analysis by Photo Spectrometry A significant development in process gas control analysis can be credited to N. Ryzhov of Moscow State University, who developed what appeared to be a workable control system of the gas species activity of the plasma glow seam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... for aluminum smelting is credited to two young engineers in 1886: Charles M. Hall and Paul L.T. Héroult. Their production methods brought the price of aluminum down to less than $1/lb, making it feasible for industrial applications, but their biggest challenge was finding customers. The companies Hall...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... is credited to Aristotle, who in his wanderings came in contact with what was known as wootz steel, from India. Aristotle cited 350 BC as the date when wootz steel was first made, although some historians believe it may have been made earlier in China. Wootz steel was man-made from a simple, unsophisticated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... ventures. Thus, interesting concepts now available in a limited way may not make their way into the commercial arena for many years, if ever. A great deal of credit is due to those original titanium producing companies that expended so many research and development dollars in alloy development projects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of the accidental nature of the discovery, these early “extractive metallurgists” must be given credit for their powers of observation. Metal, specifically copper, could be won from ores by the application of heat, in this case the heat of a wood or charcoal fire. Extracting copper from its ores is not an easy task...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... when his book was published. He gave credit to 28 prominent American metallurgists for their assistance in preparing the book. The book was written in the form of a college textbook and included 20 to 40 questions at the end of each chapter. Unlike Thum’s book, published 14 years earlier, Zapffe made...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
.... Subsequently, and apparently independently, it was proposed by Langer ( Ref 6.3 ) in 1937 for pressure vessel and piping design using relatively low-carbon steels. Being unaware of Palmgren’s work, Miner ( Ref 6.4 ) in 1945 reintroduced the linear rule with proper credit to Langer. He applied it to aircraft...