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crack-tip plasticity

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... rate, the use of fracture indices and failure criteria, and the ramifications of crack-tip plasticity in ductile and brittle fractures. It goes on to describe the different types of plain-strain and plane-stress fracture toughness, explaining how they are measured and how they are influenced by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... that surrounds a crack in a loaded body. Two categories of fracture mechanics are linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). LEFM is used when the crack tip is sharp and there is only a small amount of plastic deformation at or near the crack tip. LEFM is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract Large-scale yielding at the crack tip and time-dependent crack growth mechanisms, such as stress relaxation due to creep, are nonlinear behaviors requiring nonlinear analysis methods. This chapter presents two such methods, one based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, the other on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... the stress intensity, K I , at the crack tip, as shown in Fig. 14.1 . As can be seen, the shape of such a curve is quite complex; each straight-line region represents a different rate-controlling mechanism, summarized here [2] : Region 1: The regime of primary importance in terms of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...-determining steps include: Mass transport along the crack to or away from the crack tip Reactions in the solution near the crack Surface adsorption at or near the crack tip Surface diffusion Surface reactions Absorption into the bulk Bulk diffusion to the plastic zone ahead of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... experience such a transition in failure mode as a function of rate at room temperature, it may become evident as the test temperature is reduced. Stress concentrators can also have a significant effect on such transitions, with the presence of a crack being the most critical. In any case, a ductile-to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... thickness is much larger than the yield zone size (at least 16 times larger), the laboratory specimen will be in the state of plane strain. Because of the hydrostatic stresses that develop at crack tips under plane-strain conditions, yielding is suppressed, and a minimum value for fracture toughness is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... up at the boundaries ( Fig. 2.25 ). Decreasing the grain size is effective in both increasing strength and also increasing ductility, and, as such, is one of the most effective strengthening mechanisms. Fracture resistance also generally improves with reductions in grain size, because the cracks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of PC was studied in various liquid environments. It was found that the craze growth rate at the crack tip decreased and that crack growth and dissolution became more important as the difference between the solubility parameters of the plastic and the solvent approached 0 ( Ref 35 ). Structural...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... limited by the combined effect of an applied mechanical stress and a hostile environment. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as stress-corrosion cracking, leads to the transition from a ductile or high-impact material to a glassy or brittle plastic. Analytic criteria for the exposure-time dependence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... (SCC)-type crack growth and failure in ceramics and glasses. Impurities such as silicate glass in the grain boundaries and interfaces, compounded with nil crack-tip plasticity, are responsible for SCC failure in ceramics. Frequently in the literature, da/dt behavior in glasses and ceramics is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... cycles) and an elastically applied stress. High-cycle fatigue tests are usually carried out for 10 7 cycles and sometimes 5 × 10 8 cycles for nonferrous metals. Although the applied stress is low enough to be elastic, plastic deformation can take place at the crack tip. High-cycle fatigue data are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... brittle, on a microscopic scale there is a high degree of local plasticity, suggesting that hydrogen enhances flow at the crack tip. Figure 15 shows the reduction in ductility associated with hydrogen charging a 72Ni-28Fe alloy as a function of strain rate. Almost identical behavior was observed for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., resembling the typical corrosion fatigue behavior in metals. Temperature, moisture, water, and water vapor always cause stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)-type crack growth and failure in ceramics. Impurities such as silicate glass in the grain boundaries and interfaces, compounded with nil crack tip plasticity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... zone mechanisms depends on the nature of the plastic deformation of the crack tip, such as massive crazing or shear banding ( Ref 14 – 18 ). The yielding in front of the crack caused by far-field tensile loading results in the formation of a plastic or permanent deformation zone. For a crazeable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... tensile rupture ( Fig. CH31.4 ). Fig. CH31.2 (a) SEM fractograph of trailing edge tip in region 1. (b) SEM fractograph showing crack within the blade, indicated by arrow Fig. CH31.3 (a) SEM fractograph showing low-cycle fatigue striations in zone 2. (b) SEM fractograph showing the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... crack (or cracks) under the high stress concentration at the crack tip (or tips) and causes some of the applied elastic strain to change to plastic strain, with an attendant reduction in the initial load. Such trends in changing stress during crack growth are shown in Fig. 17.4(a) . Fig. 17.4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... contour map for the same cap-web specimen with a crack extending from the straight edge toward the top. The highest stress point is now at the crack tip, because stress concentration is highest there. The area along the crack line is unloaded. Figure 1.44 is a plot of the cross-sectional stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... related to crack end-life situations, is also very important in hot work tooling. Toughness requirements are so important that hot work tool steels normally have carbon contents close to 0.40% and hardness below 52 HRC, both values much lower than that of cold work grades. Plastic mold steels have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... fracture, several others are described in Ref 2 and shown in Fig. 8 . The three modes just discussed appear at the upper left of Fig. 8 . Fig. 8 Fourteen probable combinations of mating dimple shapes, resulting from different stress states that caused metal at the crack tip to deform by various...