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crack-like imperfection

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... by either: (1) high cycle fatigue; or (2) monotonic overload of an inherently brittle material or of an embrittled, normally ductile material. Embrittlement may be due to conditions such as high constraint as caused by thick sections, sharp notches and cracks, or crack-like imperfections; low temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... role in creating dislocations, breaking up grains into subgrains, and causing microscopic imperfections to coalesce into larger flaws. It also discusses the factors that contribute to the development and propagation of fatigue cracks, including surface deterioration, volumetric and environmental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... schematically in Fig. 3 for rolled bar that contains ingot porosity and pipe imperfections. These imperfections can serve as sites for crack initiation during fabrication or in service. Fig. 3 Longitudinal sections of two types of ingots showing typical pipe and porosity. When the ingots are rolled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... or billets; these are described in the previous section. Internal flaws often appear as cracks or tears, and they can result either from forging with too light a hammer or from continuing forging after the metal has cooled down below a safe forging temperature. Bursts can also occur during the forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...-Rolled Stock Significance on Induction Hardening Defects or Flaws Most Likely Surface Defect and Seam Detection Stress Cracks Quench Cracks Workpiece Design Workpiece Defects Heat Treating Practice For a typical 5 s heat cycle to 950 °C (1760 °F), the decarb depth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... the origin. The interior, or core, is likely to have a ductile fracture with dimpled rupture on a microscale. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 23 Surface of a torsional fatigue fracture that caused brittle fracture of the case of an induction-hardened axle of 1541 steel. The fatigue crack originated (arrow...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in composition or heat treatment, or the cracks may be on the surface only as a result of machining or grinding. Surface cracking may result from insufficient machining allowance, which does not allow for complete removal of imperfections produced on the as-cast surface, or it may result from faulty machining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... revealing the existence of the elongated or long flaw. When inspecting for shallow crack-like surface flaws 3.2 mm (⅛ in.) or less in depth, relatively close correlation between crack depth and signal magnitude has been obtained with a single coil arrangement without magnetic saturation. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... introduce many detrimental features, including changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties, introduction of welding residual stresses, and the introduction of weld imperfections. In welded structures, fatigue cracking is by far the most common failure mechanism. As shown in Fig. 5.23...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... of the annealing twin in the fcc crystal acts like a subgrain boundary and thus provides a secondary barrier for dislocation pileup. It also is similar to a depletion zone, which is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. Twins play a number of roles in fracture. Reference A1.6 provides a comprehensive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... materials for either inherent flaws (such as fractures or cracks), or damage from use. Some common methods are visual, microscopy, liquid or dye penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current testing, x-ray or radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. This chapter provides an overview...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... imperfections frequently, but not always, are associated with voids or cracks ( Fig. 4.7a and b ). Although type I imperfections sometimes are referred to as LDI, they often are of higher density than is normal for the alloy but are not as dense as the HDI that are associated with refractory metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... that could contribute to the cracking. This is important because quenching involves high levels of thermal and transformation stresses, and the presence of imperfections in the microstructure can increase the risk of cracking the part. Imperfections act like very small cracks. Inclusions and other surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... acuity, increasing thickness, and increasing crack depth ( Fig. 29 ). Thus, neither the fracture strength nor the toughness is a sole predictor or criterion for fracture control. This can present challenges to a design engineer who would like to be able to predict conditions for the onset of brittle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... with voids or cracks. Although type I imperfections sometimes are referred to as low-density inclusions, they often are of higher density than is normal for the alloy. Type II imperfections, sometimes called high-aluminum defects, are abnormally stabilized alpha-phase areas that may extend across several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the screw dislocation line. When a Burgers circuit is used to determine the Burgers vector of a screw dislocation, the vector is found to be parallel to the dislocation line rather than perpendicular to it, as in the case of an edge dislocation. A screw dislocation is somewhat like a spiral ramp...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., such as a fiber-optic illuminator. When viewed with this type of light source, the craze appears to have a silvery appearance much like that of a very fine crack. The formation of crazes is sensitive to many variables, such as polymer molecular weight, loading conditions, temperature, pressure, and the presence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... imperfections that are open to the surface; some other method must be used to detect subsurface defects and discontinuities. Another factor that can inhibit the effectiveness of liquid penetrant inspection is the surface roughness of the object. Extremely rough and porous surfaces are likely to produce false...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... titanium) is exceeded, hydrides begin to precipitate. Absorption of several hundred ppm of hydrogen results in embrittlement ( Fig. 5.6 ) and the possibility of stress cracking. Note that the addition of 20 ppm does not cause embrittlement, but when the hydrogen content goes up to 250 ppm, the reduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4