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crack propagation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... usually indicative of slower crack propagation. Multiple cracks ( Fig. 1d ) are often associated with corrosion, stress corrosion, corrosion fatigue, thermal fatigue, or localized trauma. Fig. 1 Four types of cracks: (a) sharp and open, (b) sharp and tight, (c) jagged, (d) multiple. Source: Ref 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the initiation point after which conditions that may not cause SCC can help propagate fatigue cracking at lower stresses than would be expected in more benign environments and in environments that may not cause SCC or pitting under static loads. The importance of the environmental interaction is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... propagation of cracks in austenite arrested by the ferrite phase. Fig. 1 Wrought 2205 duplex microstructure The optimization of the alloy system had to wait for two events, both related to nitrogen. First, the control of nitrogen in the refining by the argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... Visible beach marks indicate the location of the fracture initiation site. Beach marks are produced when oxidation at the crack tip propagating under an alternating stress is interrupted from time to time, for example, constant-speed machinery that is turned on and off. Also, visible beach marks are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... quenching condition be used. A reamer fabricated from an AISI 4130 steel shaft was brazed to an AISI 4130 steel body. After quenching and tempering, cracking was observed at the brazed joint, which propagated into the reamer body. The nominal range of chemical compositions for AISI 4130 and 4140...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.9781627083096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... nondestructive testing. This chapter is a detailed account of these testing methods. It describes the four most common types of defects in P/M parts, namely ejection cracks, density variations, microlaminations, and poor sintering. The chapter discusses the capabilities and limitations of various nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... determine this embrittlement process are frequently static tests, taking many hours or even many days to obtain the results. This kind of test is sometimes called static fatigue. Figure 22 shows the relation between the crack propagation mode for different load levels. Fig. 22 Illustration of a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... concentration of stress due to the weld geometry is that fatigue cracks initiate very early on, and most of the fatigue life is spent in crack propagation. Fig. 5.25 Example of weld toe intrusions. Source: Ref 5.11 Planar weld imperfections (e.g., hydrogen cracks, lack of sidewall fusion) are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... property and performance data. It also discusses the effect of various alloying elements on pitting, crevice corrosion, sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and oxidation resistance. austenitic stainless steel duplex stainless steel ferritic stainless steel martensitic stainless steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... forging and flash. The case that is being reported here is one where cracks initiated and propagated into the forging proper. Micrographs of crack formation at the flash edge are shown in Fig. 12 . Fig. 11 Piercing of low-carbon steels. Source: Ref 6 Edge characteristic Type 1 Type 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... effects such as improved fatigue life and stress corrosion by inhibiting crack initiation and propagation. Conversely, tensile stresses reduce desirable mechanical properties such as fatigue, fracture, and wear. Residual stresses are classified as the macrostress or residual stress of the first kind...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... brief review of failure types from fracture, distortion, wear, and corrosion. Fracture is a common damage feature, because the vast majority of mechanical failures involve crack propagation—typically classified as ductile, brittle, and fatigue, as briefly described in more detail. Distortion, wear, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... The junctions of the steps point in the direction of crack propagation from grain A through grain B, at approximately 22° to the horizontal plane. The details of these forks are clear in fractograph (c). Source: Ref 22 Visually, little or no plastic deformation or distortion of the shape of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... area, % 10.0 Impact, J 30–35 Hardness, HB 257–259 The fracture, as can be observed, occurred from the bottom of the tooth, propagating toward the internal diameter. The visual aspect of the cracked surface is an indication that the crack occurred by nucleation and propagation of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... intergranular arrest zone by a ductile rupture region, indicating that the crack had propagated in a ductile manner before arresting. Hydrogen most likely diffused to and concentrated at the crack tip, which caused the intergranular arrest region to occur. The crack then propagated to failure by ductile rupture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.9781627082709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... . Further investigations confirmed that the crack propagated in the semiconductor and was therefore the root cause of the failure. Root cause identification in the above example was likely not possible without the SAM data, as internal cracks are often attributed to mechanical cross-sectioning techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... performance. It is easy to see the grain-boundary crack propagation, caused by the coarse grain size as well as by precipitation of carbides on grain boundaries. This is denoted by the preferential and strong etching of austenite grain boundaries. Fig. 34 Die failure caused by excessive hardening...