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crack development

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...Abstract Abstract Stress severity factors are used in design and analysis to account for stress concentrations, variations in material properties and fabrication quality, and other analytical uncertainties. They indicate the severity of stress in areas that are prone to crack development...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...Abstract Abstract This chapter presents a fracture-mechanics-based approach to damage tolerance, accounting for mechanical, metallurgical, and environmental factors that drive crack development and growth. It begins with a review of stress-intensity factors corresponding to a wide range...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., and environment determine whether or not stress-corrosion cracking develops in a susceptible alloy. It also provides stress-corrosion ratings for many alloys, tempers, and product forms and includes information on hydrogen-induced cracking. aluminum alloys crack susceptibility hydrogen-induced cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., and others and how it led to the development of a strain-based approach to fatigue and the use of fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. It reviews the three stages of fatigue, beginning with crack initiation followed by crack growth and final fracture. It explains how fracture mechanics can be applied...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the conditions and sequence of events that lead to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and the mechanisms by which it progresses. It explains that the stresses involved in SCC are relatively small and, in most cases, work in combination with the development...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... released upon crack extension is the driving force for fracture in a cracked material under load. This chapter provides a summary of Griffith’s work and the subsequent development of linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. It includes detailed illustrations and examples, familiarizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract The tail rotor blade of a helicopter developed a visible crack during service. The cracked region was removed from the blade and the fracture surface was examined in a SEM, revealing shallow pitting on the inside surface of the skin and a corresponding reduction in thickness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract The nose bullet of an aircraft engine developed a crack and was removed and examined to determine the cause. The bullet was made from a titanium alloy and was of welded construction. Close-up views show that the crack originated in an area of rework along the weld seam...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... demonstrates the use of tools and techniques that have been developed to quantify fatigue-related damage and its effect on the remaining life of components. Cr-Mo-V steel crack initiation creep-fatigue crack growth linear-elastic fracture mechanics fatigue-crack growth fatigue testing high-cycle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract ASTM and other standards organizations have developed a number of tests for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) under various conditions. This appendix lists many of the SCC tests that have been approved for specific materials and operating environments. stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...Abstract Abstract Fracture mechanics is a well-developed quantitative approach to the study of failures. This chapter discusses fracture toughness and fracture mechanics, linear-elastic fracture mechanics, and modes of loading. The discussion also covers plane strain and stress and crack growth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the failure of a first-stage compressor blade in an aircraft engine and explains how investigators determined that it was caused by fatigue, with a crack originating from corrosion pits that developed in the root transition region on the convex side...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract Two filtration components installed on a developmental aircraft cracked during pressure impulse testing. Both parts were made from an aluminum alloy, solutionized and aged, and cracked due to fatigue. In both cases, the crack initiated at a transition region on an inner...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in the unaffected waterwall tube in the same boiler as discussed in Fig. 17.2 and 17.3 . Large cracks developed in the waterwall steel tube through the linking of numerous microcracks and microfissures. This is illustrated in Fig. 17.5 . Large cracks were often found to show oxides formed on the surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... for windows and other openings. In stretch flanging, a tensile strain is imposed on the sheared edge causing splitting of the flange ( Fig. 4.19 ). The sheared edge forming limit is determined by stretching a punched hole until a sheared edge crack develops. The hole expansion test measures the ability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of tensile stress in the wetted portion of the tube. When the water evaporates on account of heat being absorbed from the surrounding metal, the surface temperature increases and the stresses developed are relaxed. When this happens repeatedly over a period of time, a crazed pattern of cracks develops...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... develop from a flaw or stress concentration and slowly grow in size. Cracks and defects impair the strength of the component. Thus, during the continuing development of the crack, the structural strength decreases until it becomes so low that the service loads cannot be carried any more, and fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., matrix cracks develop due to tension loads in the off-axis plies, initially in the 90° plies and then in the 45° plies. Matrix cracking in a [0°/90°/±45°] s laminate is shown in Fig. 18 . More and more matrix cracks develop until they reach a steady-state or saturation level that is a function of ply...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., cracks developed in electric motor housings that had been extruded from aluminum produced from a combination of recycled and virgin metal. Extensive studies revealed that the cracking was caused by small amounts of lead and bismuth in the recycled metal reacting to form bismuth-lead eutectic at the grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... 14.3 Carbon Fiber Composites 14.4 Fatigue 14.5 Delaminations and Impact Resistance 14.6 Effects of Defects Phase I: Matrix Cracking Phase II: Fiber Fracture, Crack Coupling, and Delamination Initiation Phase III: Delamination Growth and Fracture Delaminations can occur during...