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corrosion rate

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... discussion on the causes of the various forms of corrosion associated with liquids, namely pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion corrosion. The chapter also contains tables listing corrosion rates of sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract Corrosion involves chemical reactions in equilibrium that that are understood through principles of thermodynamics. In practice, the rate at which corrosion reactions occur is the most important consideration. This chapter deals with corrosion kinetics, which allows engineers to to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... show very low rates of uniform corrosion in many environments. The metallurgy and processing of a particular grade are designed to provide passivity in a given environment. The environment can be too aggressive to allow passivity to be maintained either by being too reducing, as with some acid media...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... or in conjunction, may act to significantly increase the rate of corrosion attack by producing deposits on the surface when the alloy is at high temperature. This latter corrosion has been called hot corrosion and is invariably associated with deposits on the surface of the component and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... this is positive, then there is thermodynamically a possibility for corrosion. The rate of corrosion, which is in most cases determined by corrosion kinetics, is discussed in Chapter 3 . Consider, for example, a case of iron in aerated water. Figure 1 (with electrode Reactions 2 and 3) can be viewed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... such changes are required. It describes several types of treatments, including stress relieving, in-process annealing, full annealing, solution annealing, coating diffusion, and precipitation hardening. It discusses the temperatures, holding times, and heating and cooling rates necessary to achieve the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... contamination, thermo-mechanical stress, chemical corrosion, and moisture. The rate of these mechanisms is exponentially dependent on temperature, indicating that elevated temperatures can produce failure in a fraction of the time than would occur at room temperatures. There are several limitations to how high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... mechanical stress and minimizes the cutting of end grain, which improves the stress-corrosion resistance of some metals, notably aluminum. Deep, thin sections can be high-energy-rate forged because the rapidity of the blow provides little time for heat transfer to the die walls. Severe deformation possible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... higher nickel 304L and 316L, with performance improving with increasing chromium content. The advantage is magnified when the environment is contaminated with chlorides, as is the case of the white liquors of kraft digesters. Fig. 18 Corrosion rates in boiling NaOH. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 19...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico. The maximum corrosion rate is related to the maximum chloride in the atmosphere. This will be related to the distance inland, the height above sea level, and the prevailing winds ( Ref 6 ). Fig. 5 Average chloride concentration (mg/L) in rainwater in the United...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... arc welding (GTAW) penetration. Tensile indicates lower alloy levels to increase the work-hardening rate for material that is intended to be used in the cold-worked, high-strength condition. 316L is included in its most common tubing end use chemistry even though it is a corrosion-resisting alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... basic corrosion resistance of titanium in normally passive environments. For example, despite small differences in interstitial element (carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen) and iron content, all unalloyed grades of titanium possess the same useful range of resistance in environments in which corrosion rates...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... present, the steel is said to be passivated or in the passive state. In general, a stainless steel is passivated when in contact with an oxidizing aqueous solution but not when in contact with a reducing solution. Figure 13.1 shows the corrosion rate of iron-chromium alloys as a function of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... sometimes impart a rusty tinge to the surface, but have no known effect on corrosion rates. Nickel-aluminum bronzes are more complex in structure with the introduction of the κ phase. Nickel appears to alter the corrosion characteristics of the β phase to provide greater resistance to dealloying and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... function of test direction ( Table 5.3 ). Fatigue crack growth rate ( da / dN ) shows considerable variation from lot-to-lot, as illustrated in Fig. 5.11 . This property is strongly microstructure (heat treat) dependent. Beta annealing can reduce da / dN by a factor of 10. Fig. 5.9 Comparison of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... tend to reduce pitting corrosion; the high flow rate prevents the concentration of corrosive species in the pit. The stability of the passive film with respect to resistance to pitting initiation is controlled primarily by chromium and molybdenum. Minor alloying elements can also have an important...