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corrosion film solubility

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The characteristics include: conductivity of the solution, acidity and alkalinity, oxidizing power, degree of ionization, and solubility in the solution. These characteristics, in combination with the characteristics of the metal, will determine the corrosion behavior of a metal/environment combination. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of the surface oxide film. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide film and the service environment determine the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Additional details on the stainless steels are presented in the following articles. Fig. 1 The effect of alloying is shown as the influence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... applied in numerous water treatment processes within a refinery, such as in cooling water and steam generation systems. Typical applications for refinery corrosion inhibitors Table 1 Typical applications for refinery corrosion inhibitors Unit Process stream Filming inhibitor Neutralizer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... inhibitors designed for acidic corrosion are usually film-forming amine salts. Water-soluble or dispersible modifications of these materials are used in waterflood applications. Experience has shown that the system must be free of oxygen contamination for most of these materials to be effective. Therefore...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract Titanium and its alloys are used chiefly for their high strength-to-weight ratio, but they also have excellent corrosion resistance, better even than stainless steels. Titanium, as the chapter explains, is protected by a tenacious oxide film that forms rapidly on exposed surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to produce magnetite. 3 Fe + 4 H 2 O → Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 The magnetite coating provides protection against corrosion, forming a passive film. Likewise, oxygen reacts with copper to produce its oxides ( Ref 7.6 ). If oxygen is less than 20 ppb...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... sodium or calcium sulfonate Kind of solid lubricant, surfaces separated by film Corrosion inhibitor Sulfonate, organic boron compounds, amine, aminphosphate, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate, tall oil fatty acids Limits rust and corrosion of ferrous and nonferrous metals (prevention of oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., idealized condition occurs when a protective carbonate scale is present and when the corrosion rate is limited by the need to replenish the film lost due to solubility in the aqueous phase. Under such conditions, the rates calculated for a hypothetical sweet (CO 2 -containing) gas well reached a maximum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... or surface film. crevice corrosion environment-sensitive fracture intergranular corrosion microbiologically-influenced corrosion pitting corrosion The Concept of Localized Corrosion A concept of uniform corrosion should be defined as a basis to which localized corrosion can be compared...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of the passive film. Halides are well known for this effect, but sulfides are active. These anions seem to intervene in the adsorption of the hydroxyl ions. In acid media, these anions accelerate uniform corrosion, while in neutral media they may result in localized corrosion. Anions that form soluble complexes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., temperature, and acidity are sufficiently aggressive to break down the film, then active corrosion ensues. If this is highly localized because of a local weakness in the passive film, then pitting occurs. Such a pit may be unstable and repassivate, or it may grow without limit. Other halides have the same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... in aqueous solutions because its oxides are soluble in many acids and bases, yielding Al 3+ ions in acids and AlO 2 − (aluminate) ions in bases. There are, however, instances when corrosion does not occur outside the passive range, for example, when the oxide film is insoluble or when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... does not have any tendency to spall. The oxide film will decrease interdiffusion and chemical interaction rates between the metal and the environment. Sanchez et al. [1999] consider three stages of corrosion of beryllium in the evolution of storage conditions. In the first stage, “dry” general...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... become soluble or to be changed into soluble corrosion products. An example is the attack of sulfurous and sulfuric acid on limestone. Corrosion by direct chemical attack often results in the material being transported into the environment—polymers in certain organic solvents or metals in liquid metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... in the trends regarding temperature and corrosion rate. These are typically related to the stability of passive films that may form or break down over a fairly narrow temperature range and also can be related to the solubility of corrosive or beneficial gases and species in the environment. An important...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... lost possibly a significant amount of corrosion resistance. An oxide scale is quite different from a passive film. Scales deplete chromium; passive films enrich the surface in chromium by selective loss of iron. Oxide scales are arguably best removed by pickling. Pickling is the chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... outside the passive range, for example, when the oxide film is not soluble when the film is maintained by the oxidizing nature of the solution ( Ref 8.4 ). This chapter focuses on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of aluminum and related corrosion phenomena. Simplified ratings of resistance to general...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of the corrosive pollutants deposited on the metal surface. This situation results in a decrease of the corrosion rate, even when the TOW is prolonged. Precipitation can also dissolve some metal corrosion products soluble in water (zinc carbonate and hydroxide, for example). A fresh metal surface will be in closer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... crit and i p is of major significance since this change indicates the effectiveness of the passive film in reducing the dissolution (corrosion) rate at the anode surface. To be of practical significance, the ratio i p /i crit should be 10 –2 and preferably smaller; ratios as low as 10 –6...