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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... plants. The emphasis in this chapter, as well as in other chapters in this book, is on aqueous corrosion, or corrosion in environments where water is present. The chapter describes the classification of various forms of corrosion based on the nature of the corrodent, mechanism of corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... the important characteristics of metals with respect to corrosion, namely the metallurgical characteristics, the inherent tendency to corrode, and the tendency to form insoluble corrosion products. The important characteristics of aqueous solutions with respect to corrosion are then addressed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the techniques applicable to the diagnosis of corrosion failures, including visual and microscopic examination of corroded surfaces and microstructure; chemical analysis of the metal, corrosion products, and bulk environment; nondestructive evaluation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion, and use of Pourbaix diagrams. The phenomenon of precipitation runoff on the corroded metal surface is then discussed. The chapter also describes the role of microbes or bacteria in the corrosion of metals. It concludes by providing information on the trends in atmospheric corrosion research...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...Abstract Abstract The basic concept for most methods of corrosion protection is to remove one or more of the electrochemical cell components so that the pure metal or metal alloy of interest will not corrode. Another widely used corrosion protection approach is to change the nature of the anode...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...Galvanic series in seawater at 25 °C (77 °F) Table 1 Galvanic series in seawater at 25 °C (77 °F) Cathodic end (least easily corroded) Platinum Gold Graphite Titanium Silver Chlorimet 3 Hastelloy C Inconel alloy 625 Incoloy alloy 825 Type 316 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Effect of increasing the concentration of reducible species on the cathodic polarization curve and the corrosion rate of an active metal Fig. 29 Effect of increasing the velocity of the solution for a corroding system under cathodic concentration control Fig. 30 Effect of an anodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... in many chemical process solutions. Naturally occurring complexing agents are frequently found in foods and may alter the predicted corrosion behavior of metal food containers. The example to be considered is the analysis of the tendency for copper to corrode in a deaerated solution of pH = 8...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to the environment. In fact, the word corrode is derived from the Latin corrodere , which means “to gnaw to pieces.” Metallic corrosion is a chemical or electrochemical process in which surface atoms of a solid metal react with a substance in contact with the exposed surface and produce a deterioration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...Galvanic series in seawater at 25 °C (77 °F) Table 1 Galvanic series in seawater at 25 °C (77 °F) Anodic end (most easily corroded) Magnesium Magnesium alloys Zinc Galvanized steel or galvanized wrought iron Aluminum alloys 5052, 3004, 3003,1100, 6053 (in this order...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 0.02 (0.9) 0.07 (2.8) 188 0.93 0.02 (0.7) 0.04 (1.6) IC-50 72 >0.72 (28.3), completely corroded >0.72 (28.3), completely corroded IC-218 83 >0.75 (29.5), completely corroded >0.75 (29.5), completely corroded (a) Metal loss + internal penetration. Source: Ref 23...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... corrosion cell on a buried steel pipe. Under freely corroding conditions, an area on the steel surface becomes an anode, and another area becomes a cathode. The potential difference between the anode and cathode gives rise to a corrosion current flowing from the anode into the soil. The corrosion current...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... in which surface atoms of a solid metal react with a substance in contact with the exposed surface. Usually the corroding medium is a liquid substance, but gases and even solids can also act as corroding media. In some instances, the corrodent is a bulk fluid; in others, it is a film, droplets...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... in the United States is estimated to be $1 trillion annually. Approximately 40% of this cost can be avoided by well-known practices. Much of this loss is due to the corrosion of iron and steel, although many other metals also corrode. There are two principal types of corrosion: aqueous corrosion (corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... polarization curve with the anodic polarization curve. (b) The resulting dependence of the corrosion current on fluid velocity Fig. 4.1 Schematic representation of measurements of potentials along a path from anode to cathode area on a corroding surface Fig. 4.2 Array of anodic and cathodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... in contact with the metal. In more complicated cases, the metal ions move into solution by forming complex ions, or they combine with other species in the solution and precipitate compounds such as hydroxides, oxides, or sulfides. At sufficiently high temperatures, metals corrode in gases, particularly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... elements, grain boundaries, second phases, and inclusions often have a dominant effect. Finally, welded structures almost always corrode first at the welds because of metallurgical heterogeneities that exist in and near welds. In general, the most susceptible site or defect on a metal surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... for both tank and pipeline, preventing stray currents. Source: Ref 15.6 Fig. 15.12 Micrograph of a polished and etched section through a pit with the start of a fatigue crack at the bottom of the pit Fig. 15.9 Austenitic stainless steel tube that was corroded where a fabric bag...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... saline environment ( Fig. 1 ). The aluminum alloy corrodes more rapidly than it does in the absence of the contacting dissimilar metal. Figures 2 and 3 show examples of failure due to galvanic corrosion of aluminum. Fig. 1 Galvanic corrosion in an aluminum-copper riveted assembly Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1