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core hardness

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... on core properties including hardenability, microstructure, tensile and yield strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue resistance. It likewise explains how carbon affects case hardenability, surface hardness, and case toughness and how case depth influences residual stresses and bending and contact...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... mm (0.010 in.) can be accurately hardness tested provided the core hardness is no less than 30 Scleroscope. Softer cores require a minimum case thickness of 0.38 mm (0.015 in.) for accurate results. Thin strip or sheet may be tested, with some limitations, but only when the Scleroscope hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... that contains no unhardened core after quenching. An important aspect of this definition is that the hardness that separates the hardened from the unhardened core of a bar is associated with a microstructure assumed to contain only 50% martensite. This assumption underlies all of the graphical information...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract Hardness tests provide valuable information about the quality of materials and how they are likely to perform in different types of service. This chapter covers some of the most widely used hardness testing methods, including Vickers, Rockwell, and Brinell tests, Shore scleroscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the extrusion characteristics of hard aluminum alloys, particularly those in the 5000 and 7000 series. It begins with a review of two studies, one showing how the extrudability of 7 xxx alloys varies with the presence and amount of different alloying elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... layer, the ratio of this thickness to the entire cross section, the ratio of surface hardness to core hardness, and the state of residual stresses, usually compressive, situated within the surface layer relative to the state of stresses in the substrate, which are usually tensile. An incorrectly applied...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... hardness, effective case depth, and core hardness. The test pin diameter chosen was based on the gear tooth thickness and the fact that the test pin center cooling rate would be on the steeper portion of the Jominy hardenability curve. This meant that monitoring the center core hardness of the test pins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Nonmartensitic transformation product in case  High-viscosity quench oil …  Delayed tempering Low mechanical properties  Poor hardenability High retained austenite  Low density Low case depth  Carbon segregation High case depth  Alloy segregation High core hardness  Low sectional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... induction hardening is used for gears, for example, the preferred hardness distribution is generally to have about 55 HRC at the surface and 30 HRC in the core ( Ref 1 ); consequently, parts so treated do not have a contact strength or wear resistance that are quite as good as in carburized and hardened...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... The tempering process involves heating steel to any temperature below the Ac 1 temperature. The objective of tempering is to reduce hardness to a desired level and then stop the carbide decomposition by cooling. Direct hardening of steel involves the two-step process of austenitization and quenching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... content case hardness contact fatigue core hardness quenching refrigeration retained austenite tempering wear resistance Thermal treatments, such as tempering and refrigeration (subzero cooling), performed on case-hardened parts subsequent to quenching are considered necessary by some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... large fragments from the surface of contacting case-hardened metal parts and relatively easy to prevent by judiciously increasing case depth, core hardness, or both. Cavitation fatigue causes formation of clusters of many pits in metal surfaces vibrating or moving rapidly relative to a liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... coatings boronizing THERE ARE SOME APPLICATIONS where it is necessary to have a hard, wear-resistant surface but a tough, shock-resistant inner core. For example, cams, gears, and shafts require hard surfaces to resist wear but tough inner cores to resist shock. While a low-carbon steel containing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract The design requirements for mechanical shafts, pinions, and gears often call for features with very hard surfaces (to resist wear) based on a softer core (to avoid brittle fracture). This chapter explains how to selectively harden steel by diffusing carbon and nitrogen atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... preventing over-reaction to cycle time interruptions. Suitable hardness: a measure of wear-resistance during mold blasting for mold coat removal in mold reconditioning. High tensile strength: a measure of strength at elevated temperatures, especially for metal cores and fasteners. Ability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...-hardened steels with very thin cases, steep drops, and/or a sudden change from a hard surface to a relatively soft core. Keeping in mind the principle that fracture can originate wherever the local stress first reaches the local strength, it is easy to understand subsurface-origin fracture. Note...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... of the fractures. Fig. 7 SEM fractographs documenting typical topographic features of the T-head. (a) Typical portion of fracture surface, showing typical origins at arrows (500 μm). (b) Typical fatigue striations on fracture surface of T-head (1 μm) Hardness measurements were made on the strain bar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... the difference in the two heats can be seen by simply checking the core hardness. Spectroscopic examination can be used for accurate chemical analysis. There is internal heating of components in the power supply or heat station. Restrictions or debris in the cooling lines of the internal components can cause...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... of embrittlement. There are some applications where it is necessary to have a hard wear-resistant surface but a tough shock-resistant inner core. For example, cams, gears, and shafts require hard surfaces to resist wear but tough inner cores to resist shock. While a low-carbon steel containing 0.1% C...