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copper contamination

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... immersion of cobalt steels in magnesium melts, iron, nickel, and copper are common contaminants that can be readily introduced through poor molten-metal-handling practices. These elements must be held to levels under their individual solubility limits, or their activity must be moderated through the use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... immersion of cobalt steels in magnesium melts, iron, nickel, and copper are common contaminants that can be readily introduced through poor molten-metal handling practices. These elements must be held to levels under their individual solubility limits (or their activity moderated through the use of alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.../0025-5416(82)90157-4 43. Matthews S.J. , Maddock M.O. , and Savage W.F. , How Copper Surface Contamination Affects Weldability of Cobalt Superalloys , Weld. J. , May 1972 44. Savage W.F. and Mushala M. , Copper Contamination Cracking in the Weld Heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... contaminants: iron, nickel, and copper. High-purity AZ91D alloy has replaced less-pure AZ91B as the workhorse for die casting. However, alloy AZ91B is still used because it can be easily produced from scrap or secondary metal. This cost-saving alternative can be used for applications in which corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... − ) , chloride (Cl − ), and calcium (Ca 2+ ); and on whether the pits that develop are open or occluded ( Ref 28 ). Copper contamination of solutions in contact with aluminum should be minimized or avoided. Ferric (Fe 3+ ) ion can be reduced by aluminum but does not form a metallic deposit. This ion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... ions (i.e., by maintaining a neutral pH). Boiler tubes also fail due to corrosion in the presence of dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide, and therefore it is also necessary to control the amount of dissolved oxygen in BFW. Overall low pH conditions are generated when BFW is contaminated with acidic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... the corrosion resistance and mechanical integrity of the affected areas. Copper is another example of a metal that may affect some nickel-base alloys when they are subsequently exposed to high temperatures. Therefore, all surface contaminants should be removed from superalloys before they are heat treated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract Cleaning procedures serve to remove scale, tarnish films, and other contaminants that form or are otherwise deposited on the surface of titanium during processing operations such as hot working and heat treatment. This chapter explains what makes titanium susceptible to the formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of impurities and feedwater parameters on high-pressure boiler components. It discusses deposition and scaling, types of corrosion, and carryover, a condition that occurs when steam becomes contaminated with droplets of boiler water. The chapter also covers water treatment procedures, including filtration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... increase the risk of bridging and icicle formation in printed circuits. For this and health reasons, cadmium levels should be kept to a minimum. The role of copper as a contaminant in solder appears to be variable and related to the particular product. A molten tin-lead solder bath is capable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... take extraordinary care to ensure that the samples are not contaminated and that they are stored properly. For the metallographer, the same things are important. The way the specimens are sectioned from a larger sample is very important since the plane of polish can reveal different microstructural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... in contact. This has become an increasing concern as the effects of ions or chemicals released from food preparation materials have been viewed as potential toxic or disease agents. Medical knowledge is not sufficiently advanced to convince consumers of the harmlessness of such contaminants, so...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... −0.27 Tin −0.25 Lead −0.14 Copper 0.34 Silver 0.80 Palladium 0.83 Platinum 1.2 Gold 1.42 Lower excess of free energy (low tendency for corrosion) Note: The excess of free energy is related to the standard electrode (metal) potential value. (Complete metal electrode...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes a process for recovering beryllium from industrial waste associated with beryllium-copper production. It presents several detailed flowsheets along with typical operating parameters such as flow rates, chemical concentrations, particle sizes, and compositional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... for applications in which the presence of copper offers corrosion-resistance advantages. (c) Type 2 is recommended for applications in which copper contamination cannot be tolerated, such as handling of foods or caustics. (d) Where some machining is required, 3.0 to 4.0 Cr is recommended. (e) Where...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract The nonferrous alloys described in this chapter include aluminum and aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium and zirconium alloys, and tantalum and tantalum alloys. Some of the factors that affect the corrosion performance of welded nonferrous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... Many polymer materials depend on special treatment of surfaces. Surface analysis techniques can identify inadvertent contaminants introduced during manufacturing, storage, shipping, or handling. The deleterious effects of errors in the initial composition of ingredients, or of upsets...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... this temperature, silver dissolves its oxide and also scavenges many surface contaminants. Other examples of metals that have a high solubility for interstitial contaminants include tantalum, tungsten, copper, iron, zirconium, and niobium. Accordingly, this class of alloys is easiest to diffusion bond...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... + ⁢   ( aq ) + [ Fe ( CN 6 ) ] 3 − ⁢   ( aq )    → KFe III Fe II ( CN ) 6 ( S ) The ferroxyl test is superior to the previously described copper sulfate test for detecting contamination with less noble materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
.... The specific surface area (m 2 /g) varies inversely with the particle size. Proper dispersion is needed to properly characterize a powder. Surface treatments are appropriate for improved binder adhesion—chemical, thermal, or mechanical. The idea is to dissolve contaminants and disperse the individual particles...