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coordination numbers

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the various inspection methods used with metals and alloys, namely visual inspection, coordinate measuring machines, machine vision, hardness testing, tensile testing, chemical analysis, metallography, and nondestructive testing. The nondestructive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., a large enough variation or fluctuation in the applied stress, and a sufficiently large number of cycles of the applied stress. The discussion covers high-cycle fatigue, low-cycle fatigue, and fatigue crack propagation. The chapter then discusses the stages where fatigue crack nucleation and growth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... another mechanism that causes plastic deformation, although it is not nearly as important as dislocation movement. Mechanical twinning is the coordinated movement of large numbers of atoms that deform a portion of the crystal by an abrupt shearing motion. Atoms on each side of the twinning plane, or habit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., thermal properties, magnetic properties, and optical properties. Some physical properties for a number of metals are given in a table. physical properties electrical properties thermal properties magnetic properties optical properties metals THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES of a material are those...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the fcc structure. This is the densest packing that can be obtained. The fcc structure is the most efficient, with 12 nearest atom neighbors (also referred to as the coordination number, or CN); that is, the fcc structure has a CN = 12. Methods of calculating atomic packing factors and coordination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... coordinate system. This is permissible because the coordinate system chosen is an arbitrary one that could be chosen anywhere on the vast expanse of a space lattice, and, as will be seen, parallel planes are equivalent. The a , b , and c intercepts of the plane with the x , y , and z coordinates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Coherent phase boundaries , where a small group of solute atoms fit within the host lattice, but with some distortion of the lattice Mechanical twinning , where the coordinated movement of large numbers of atoms deforms a portion of the crystal by an abrupt shearing motion Volume defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... temperature versus composition map that locates on the map the temperature-composition coordinates where the various phases can exist. Figure 2.2 presents part of the water-calcium chloride phase diagram. Just as in Fig. 2.1 , the diagram has the temperature plotted vertically and the composition (in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... container of volume ( V ) at pressure ( P ) can be described by: (Eq 2.1) P V = n R T Where n is the number of atoms (expressed in units of moles) in the container, R is the universal ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature. This fundamental equation is one of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...) and coordination number (CN) of the important crystalline structures can be calculated from their geometries. Plastic deformation takes place by sliding (slip) of close-packed planes over one another. A reason for this slip plane preference is that the separation between close...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... atoms to A atoms ( B/A ) is approximately 1.2. In these phases, the A atoms have 12 nearest B neighbors and 4 nearest A neighbors. Each B atom has 6 A and 6 B nearest neighbors. This arrangement produces an average coordination number of (2 × 12 + 16)/3 = 13.33. These hard and brittle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... 1000 Å). At the nanomaterials level, properties are affected more by the laws of atomic physics than by the behavior of bulk materials. The small size feature of nanomaterials makes most of their atoms surface atoms with different coordination numbers, energy levels, electronic structure, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... binder wetting and is near 5 for spheres, S P is the fractional pore saturation (0 = no binder, 1 = full saturation), D is the particle size, f is the powder solids loading (usually near 0.6), N C is the packing coordination number, and γ LV is the surface energy of the molten binder. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... composites and in aerospace turbine engine blades, but some initial results obtained with cast iron test plates have proved promising. A number of techniques are used to determine the dimensional accuracy of castings. These include manual checks with micrometers, manual and automatic gages, coordinate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... parameter. A low green density makes sintering difficult because there are fewer particle contacts. The number of touching particles for each particle (nearest neighbors) is the coordination number. Figure 8.12 is an example of the green density effect. The sintered density for 0.5 μm alumina powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... expanding its coordination number to six, like other alkaline earth elements. This behavior is the result of the small size of the beryllium atom and the inaccessibility of the 3d orbital, which is required to achieve s 1 p 3 d 2 hybridization. This hybridization electron characteristic is a feature of all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... nearest B neighbors and 4 nearest A neighbors. Each B atom has 6 A and 6 B nearest neighbors. This arrangement produces an average coordination number of (2 × 12 + 16)/3 = 13.33. These hard and brittle phases, such as NbFe 2 , TiFe 2 , and TiCo 2 , cause deterioration in ductility and stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., it is useful to use, instead of a Cartesian coordinate system, a cylindrical coordinate system as shown in Fig. 3.4 . Here the three independent coordinates of a point P are the radius r , the axial coordinate z , and the circumferential angle θ. Fig. 3.4 Cylindrical coordinate system for...