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controlled-atmosphere furnaces

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract Furnaces for heat treatment of tool steels include ceramic-lined salt bath furnaces, vacuum furnaces, controlled-atmosphere furnaces, and fluidized-bed furnaces. This chapter describes the classification, operating principles, application, advantages, and disadvantages of each type...
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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 8 Batch atmosphere furnace programmable logic controller (PLC) control system. (a) Furnace function status screen. (b) Furnace recipe control screen. Courtesy of Surface Combustion Inc. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... or quenched under certain conditions; and, finally, moved out of the quench vessel or furnace. The temperature, and frequently the atmosphere condition, must be controlled precisely in order to achieve the desired metallurgical results. In order to ensure the repeatability of the operation, the heat treating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... utilizes various sensors, timers, and other components to monitor and control the process utilizing various control methods. Heat treating furnaces and equipment can generally be categorized as open fire, atmosphere, vacuum, induction, and flame and are covered in subsequent chapters. The principal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... treater must know each type of atmosphere used, when to use it, and what reactions take place inside the furnace during its use. Most important, the heat treater must know how to monitor and control these atmospheres in the furnace. Combustion Products Atmospheres Atmospheres that consist...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... problem in controlling carbonitriding processes is that the rate of nitrogen pickup depends on the free ammonia content of the furnace atmosphere and not the percentage of ammonia in the inlet gas. Unfortunately, no state-of-the-art sensor for monitoring the free ammonia content of the furnace atmosphere...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
...) for 2 hours at heat. Add 300 CFH of nitrogen to the atmosphere. This makes the furnace safe. 21. Then set the temperature controller at 595 °C (1100 °F). Hold at 595 °C (1100 °F) for 2 hours at heat. 22. Set the furnace temperature to 870 °C (1600 °F). 23. When the furnace is above 760 °C (1400...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... radiation heating vacuum furnaces HEAT TREATING FURNACES and related equipment include the heating devices (furnaces), fixtures and/or holding devices, quenching systems, and atmosphere and temperature control systems—all of which are required for the majority of heat treating operations. Specialized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... atmosphere. Forced fan circulation serves to distribute the atmosphere evenly throughout the furnace and provide temperature uniformity. The liquid flow can be adjusted manually, although it can be a part of an automatically controlled system that provides almost any desired carbon potential. Because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... that they load and move parts, add atmospheres and control time cycles, unload, quench, anneal, and temper in a continuous operation. Furnaces may cost anywhere from a few thousand to several million dollars. The choice of which size and type of furnace to use (e.g., direct-fire, atmosphere, or vacuum) depends...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... atmosphere. In most atmosphere furnaces, it is not possible to change the atmosphere composition rapidly enough for optimal reactions or to control the atmosphere composition with the degree of precision required for some heat treating processes. Vacuum furnaces allow gas changes to be made rapidly because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses equipment used for ferritic nitrocarburizing, including salt bath furnaces, atmosphere furnaces, and plasma furnaces. It also describes the processes involved in ferritic oxynitrocarburizing. atmosphere furnaces ferritic nitrocarburizing plasma furnaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of Nitriding Furnaces Any type of furnace can be used for the nitriding process, provided that it has the integrity to maintain an atmosphere without leaking and meet the required process control conditions. This means that even if a furnace is not gastight, it can still be used with an inner-sealed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
...), or 10,704 hours per year for each piece of primary equipment. Atmosphere Processes There were six batch integral quench atmosphere furnaces (two 2-zone and four single-zone), one pusher atmosphere carburizer line with related washers, and tempering furnaces. The processes used were carburizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... reactions that occur during annealing: decarburization and scaling. Information on the gases and gas mixtures used for controlled atmospheres is then provided. The second part of the chapter focuses on the processes involved in normalizing, along with information on furnace equipment for normalizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of gas fluidized beds. Source: Ref 1 Heating Method The methods of heating a fluidized bed are very similar to those used to heat an atmosphere-type furnace or a salt bath. The heating system can be electrical or gas, and internal or external. External Resistance Heating The aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Lindure Controlled nitrocarburizing Soft nitriding Vacuum nitrocarburizing (using a conventional cold-wall furnace) References 1 and 2 provide detailed information on these various processes. Process Principles The atmosphere method relies (as does the salt bath procedure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... Forced fan circulation serves to distribute the atmosphere evenly throughout the furnace and also provides temperature uniformity. The liquid flow can be adjusted manually, although it can be a part of an automatically controlled system that provides almost any desired carbon potential. Furnaces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... mixtures employed necessarily contain decarburizing agents. As long as these agents are present, there is always the possibility that a loss of furnace atmosphere control, for whatever reason, will lead to decarburization of the parts being treated. Decarburization Processes Decarburizing Reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... test to determine the cause: Copper/Steel/Stainless Steel Test . Change the atmosphere flow in the furnace to 100% Nitrogen Make absolutely sure that every zone of the furnace is below 1900 °F to prevent copper from melting Place a piece of bright copper strip, a bright carbon steel...