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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... of residual stresses obtained for 70 carburized steels Fig. 1 Correlation of case depth of carbonitrided steels with varying diffusion times and temperatures Abstract Abstract This chapter provides information on various contributors to failure of carburized and carbonitrided components...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... contributors to powder price, namely raw material cost and conversion cost. The applicability of various processes to specific material systems is mentioned throughout this chapter. atomization cost analysis electrochemical precipitation mechanical comminution phase change powders thermochemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... of sustainability in the materials cycle. This chapter discusses some of the key indicators of sustainability that have direct relevance to advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) used in a vehicle. The discussion covers the major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, production routes for manufacturing crude steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... in an austenitic stainless steel pipe, 100× Abstract Abstract Fossil fuels produce many byproducts that, if not fully combusted, put boiler tubes at risk. Fuel ash, chemical residues, and process heat pose the greatest threat and are the primary contributors to fireside corrosion. This chapter covers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... SCC has been developed ( Ref 15.5 ). The basis for this model is the coexistence of three major contributors in the weldment: tensile stresses above the yield stress of the base material, a sensitized microstructure, and the BWR water coolant. Applied tensile stresses acting on the pipe weldment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Photomacrograph of IGSCC in a type 304 stainless steel pipe weldment Fig. 8 Pipe test results showing IGSCC in a 400 mm (16 in.) type 304 stainless steel pipe HAZ. 13× Fig. 6 Schematic of BWR recirculation piping system Fig. 9 Three key contributors necessary for IGSCC in welded...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... in the design cycle, is a key contributor to design cycle time compression. This joint review process is also an excellent opportunity for mutual education, for recognition of functionality and manufacturability needs, and for finding ways to accomplish them together. Figure 2.5 is a schematic illustrating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... and nonferrous alloys, polymers, and composites. The overall weight of a car is distributed among its body (40%), chassis (25%), power train (15%), and equipment (20%). The body and chassis are the two major contributors to the weight of a car and therefore are the focus for lightweight design. Lightweight...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
..., and back to ground taxi must be defined for a fatigue analysis. This stress variation, or GAG cycle, is one of the most important contributors to structural fatigue damage. Figure A4.1 illustrates two GAG cycle definitions commonly used in fatigue analysis: the mean-to-mean GAG cycle and the once...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... on the hardening mechanism at the United States Bureau of Standards in Washington. Several young metals researchers working at the bureau at the time were Paul Merica, Howard Scott, and R.G. Waltenberg. These men would become famous as the next major contributors to the study of age hardening. The Research...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... strains superimposed on the composite algebraically add to the thermal expansion mismatch strain of the matrix ( Ref 9.2 ). Phasing of the three strain contributors is, of course, very important. If all three were out-of-phase with the temperature, they would take on their greatest magnitude and could...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... in bending, differences between tensile and compressive stresses and their individual effect on creep rates are masked. Cyclic creep deformation as a major contributor to low-frequency failures was evidenced by the dominant intergranular cracking observed by Eckel. A decade later, two definitive papers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... their specified ranges. Knowledge of the significance of the major contributors to dimensional change is useful from the points of view of controlling and troubleshooting the manufacturing process. The rate of sintering of a PM compact is significantly influenced by the specific surface area of the powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... Additionally, they are one of the largest sources of air pollution. Emissions such as CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , and dust particles due to burning of fossil fuels are some of the largest contributors to global climate change. Studies reveal that improvement in the plant efficiency, apart from lowering the cost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... ). Study of fracture then concentrated for several years on the development and understanding of the mechanisms of craze formation, because, clearly, the formation of crazes ahead of the crack is the major contributor to the energy absorbed in fracture in most polymers ( Ref 15 ). Indeed, because crazing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... metallic corrosion costs were incurred in the production, use, and maintenance of motor vehicles. No other sector accounted for as much as 4% of the total, and most sectors contributed less than 1%. The aircraft sector, for instance, was one of the next largest contributors and accounted for just more than...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... life will generally result. Sulfur reduces mechanical and corrosion properties and can be a cause of hot cracking in the resulfurized grades. It is best known as a free-machining contributor that promotes better tool life and greater machining speeds. Manganese is generally added to combine...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... Edwards, a Fellow at Victoria University at Manchester, studied the effect of Cr and W and considered hardness itself as a contributor to red hardness. Taylor had always thought of red hardness as a separate special property that could be studied only by a cutting test. While Edwards’ first work did...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... and steelmakers had already developed a master alloy called “spiegeleisen” for adding the manganese. Thus, Mushet was a major contributor to the success of the so-called Bessemer process. According to Jeanne McHugh in her book on Alexander Holley, Bessemer’s American patent was challenged by William Kelly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... microstructures Metal handling to prevent inclusions Solidification and feeding to prevent shrink porosity Figure 4.7 is an overview of the major contributors to superior quality and high engineering properties. Proper melt treatment (for fine microstructures), degassing, and metal filtration...