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continuous-type furnaces

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., and disadvantages of furnaces classified based on the heat transfer medium employed. The types of furnaces covered are batch-type, continuous-type, liquid bath, fluidized bed, and vacuum. The subsequent sections provide information on furnace parts, fixtures, quenching mediums, and quenching systems. The final...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... on hardenability and tempering response. It discusses the significance of critical temperatures, the use of transformation diagrams, and types of annealing treatments. It also provides information on heat treating furnaces, the effect of heating rate on transformation temperatures, quench and temper procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
...) and even larger. Fig. 15-10 Car bottom heat-treating furnace with miscellaneous castings Continuous furnaces are particularly useful when high-production quantities of similar castings are to be treated. These furnaces are usually of the pusher type with a roller hearth ( Figure 15-11...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... to the grain boundaries. Alloy Steel Refining High-strength steels are available in a variety of quality levels, depending on the type of melting practice used. While many of these steels were originally air melted, the trend has been to move to more advanced melting techniques such as vacuum degassing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... operations and in foundries, the electric arc furnace is commonly used. However, cupola furnaces are used where large tonnages are required for ironmaking. Melting in cupola furnaces dates back several centuries to the old cask-type units that were operated with hand-pumped bellows. Modern cupola furnaces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... electrically. The hydraulic type is thought to be more reliable because the quality and quantity of the air supply used to power pneumatic drives may not be consistent. Fig. 10.1 Material-handling arrangements involving a fixed coil and moving parts. (a) Continuous movement through a channel-type coil...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...) for different types of discharge in argon Fig. 7 Hot-wall plasma nitriding furnace. Arrows indicate the air blowers that cool the external process vessel wall. Courtesy of Plateg GmbH Fig. 8 Power characteristics (a) Continuous dc. (b) Pulsed dc. Abnormal glow discharge (see Fig. 5 ) occurs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... solidification. After stripping from the molds, the hot ingots are transferred to soaking pits where they are reheated for hot rolling. Fig. 19.6 Types of ingot structures. Source: Ref 1 During solidification, excess gases are expelled from the solidifying metal. Oxygen in the form of FeO reacts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... through the furnace by means of a walking beam system. In continuous type homogenizing, every billet receives exactly the same temperature and time for the heat treatment. With a batch furnace, however, some dispersion in the heating and holding time is unavoidable between the hot side and the cool side...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... Fig. 38 Six ton heroult-type furnace. Source: A.L. Feild, Manufacture of Stainless Iron from Ferrochromium, from Scrap, or from Ore, Metal Progress , Feb. 1933 , p 15 Abstract This chapter presents a brief description of the three-step process: melting, decarburizing, and alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Cleaning Different types of quenchants have different types of cleaning requirements before tempering. Oil quenchants need to be removed before tempering. Quench oils burn in the tempering furnaces, and if they are not removed, the parts in a tempering retort can actually glue together. The oil can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... for recrystallization. According to the growth behavior of the grains, grain growth can be further classified into two types: normal or continuous grain growth and abnormal or discontinuous grain growth. The latter has also been termed exaggerated grain growth, coarsening, or secondary recrystallization. Normal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... to a few high-output types. Therefore, only extrusion press designs that dominate today’s market are discussed in this chapter. These are referred to as standard extrusion presses in Table 6.1 . Presses for the direct extrusion of aluminum alloys (light metal), copper alloys (heavy metal), and steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Process Vessel Cleanliness Bell-type plasma nitriding furnaces require regular cleaning. Each week, wipe the inside of the process chamber walls to remove any carbon particles and sputtered particles, taking care to keep particle matter from falling onto the O-ring seal. It is important...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... A wide variety of conventional furnaces including pit, rotary, batch/integral quench, and continuous furnaces are used for gas carburizing (see illustrations of furnaces in Chapter 4 ). There are no specific limitations on furnace size. Selection of furnace type depends largely on workpiece shape...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract Furnaces for heat treatment of tool steels include ceramic-lined salt bath furnaces, vacuum furnaces, controlled-atmosphere furnaces, and fluidized-bed furnaces. This chapter describes the classification, operating principles, application, advantages, and disadvantages of each type...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the types of melting furnaces and refractories for steel casting. It then presents information about arc furnace melting and induction melting cycles. The chapter also describes methods for the removal of phosphorous, the removal of sulfur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
..., only a sight port or small opening in the test furnace. With the two types of laser strain gages and the high-temperature clip gage, there is now little difficulty in making direct and precise measurements of strain in high-temperature tensile specimens. With some of the other, indirect tensile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... In 1946, Edwin Cady listed the basic types of induction equipment ( Ref 3 ) with frequencies ranging from 25 Hz to 50 MHz: Electronic circuit (vacuum tube, 300 to 530 kHz, and greater than 1 MHz) Spark gap (15 to 60 kHz and 125 to 450 kHz) Rotary converter (motor generator, 1 to 10 kHz...