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continuous grain growth

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...; degree of cold work; purity of the metal; original grain size; and temperature of deformation. The types of grain growth discussed include normal or continuous grain growth and abnormal or discontinuous grain growth. annealing recrystallization grain growth temperature time purity grain size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly the curbing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... has already been presented in Fig. 4.3 of Chapter 4, “Pearlite, Ferrite, and Cementite,” in connection with the description of the nucleation and growth kinetics of pearlite formation. The IT diagram for eutectoid steel with negligible alloy content is quite straightforward. Only pearlite forms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... step of the process ( Ref 3 ). Because growth does not continue across ferrite grain boundaries, the adjoining ferrite grains have to be filled in turn by independently nucleated austenite grains. The original ferrite grains are thus replaced one by one by new austenite grains ( Fig. 8.2 (Part 1) d to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Grain growth Aluminum extrusion ingots are cast in round-shaped continuous lengths (logs) up to 160 in. (4064 mm), and billets are then cut from the cast log to the desired length as shown in Fig. 4(a) . Round billets have two dimensions, diameter, D , and length, L . The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... steel ferritic microstructure grain growth heat treatment low alloy steel martensite Heat treatment is the most common way of altering the mechanical, physical, and even chemical properties of steels. In this chapter, conventional heat treatments, primarily those applied to carbon and low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... is retarded to higher temperatures. Figure 8.22 shows the relative effects of various elements on the suppression of austenitic grain growth ( Ref 8.37 ). The curve marked C-Mn, representing a plain carbon steel with no particle dispersions, shows continuous increase in grain size with increasing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the structures, phases, and phase transformations observed in metals and alloys as they solidify and cool to lower temperatures. It begins with a review of the solidification process, covering nucleation, grain growth, and the factors that influence grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
.... Fract. , Vol 32 , 1986 , p 127 – 140 10.1007/BF00019788 5.38. Buchalet C.B. and Bamfort W.H. , Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Continuous Surface Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessels , Mechanics of Crack Growth, STP 590 , ASTM , 1976 , p 385 – 402 10.1520/STP33958S...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... and growth, and the characteristic features of the various microstructures. It also describes the transformation of austenite during continuous cooling. austenite transformation bainite martensite pearlite proeutectoid cementite proeutectoid ferrite steels The nature of the aggregate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. This is followed by discussions on annealing processes, namely subcritical annealing, critical-range annealing, full annealing, isothermal annealing, annealing for microstructure, and solution or quench annealing. Next, the chapter describes two undesirable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in alloy production, including melting, casting, solidification, and fabrication. It discusses the effects of alloying on solidification, the formation of solidification structures, supercooling, nucleation, and grain growth. It describes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... continued decrease in hardness during grain growth. This is apparent in Fig. 6.5 for the 60% cold worked material above 280 °C (540 °F), the 40% cold worked material above 300 °C (600 °F), and the 20% cold worked material above approximately 340 °C (640 °F). While all metals share important...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the thermally induced changes that occur on the surface of steel exposed to different environments. It explains how oxide scales form during heat treating and how factors such as temperature, composition, and surface finish affect growth rates, grain structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... W.A. , Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Metals , Acta Metall. , Vol 31 , 1983 , p 1581 – 1587 10.1016/0001-6160(83)90155-4 38. Robinson J.L. and Beevers C.J. , The Effects of Load Ratio, Interstitial Content and Grain Size on Low-Stress Fatigue Crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., cellular, and dendritic growth, the basic freezing sequence for an alloy casting, and the variations in cooling rate, heat flow, and grain morphology in different areas of the mold. It also describes the types of segregation that occur during freezing, the effect of solidification rate on secondary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... grains begin to appear in the microstructure (see micrograph 2 in Fig. 14.4 ). These continue to form and grow until the cold worked matrix is consumed, which marks the end of the recrystallization period and the beginning of grain growth. Further annealing causes only an increase in grain size (see...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... deformation in the neck, ductile fracture is initiated. Ductile fracture is caused by the initiation of microvoids around second-phase particles, plastic growth of the voids, and eventual coalescence of the voids to produce the final ductile fracture surface ( Ref 11.8 – 11.10 ). A phenomenon unique to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... P. , and Rappaz M. , <100> Dendrite Growth in Aluminum Feathery Grains , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 29A , 1998 , p 2807 – 2817 10.1007/s11661-998-0321-9 10. Gandin Ch.A. , Eshelman M. , and Trivedi R. , Orientation Dependence of Primary Dendrite Spacing...