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confidence limits

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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 57 Determination of upper and lower confidence limit and arithmetic mean values of residual stresses through the hardened depth. Source: Ref 54 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 101 Hardenability of the analyzed steels and determination of the upper and lower confidence limit. Source: Ref 83 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 95 Bending fatigue strength of gear teeth at (a) tooth gap hardening and (b) flank hardening for various steels. Broken lines denote confidence limit according to DIN 3990. Source: Ref 36 More
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Published: 01 December 1989
Fig. 7.2. Tempering parameter vs tensile strength for quenched-and-tempered 2¼Cr-1Mo (ASTM A387, grade 22) steel plates and forgings ( Ref 4 ). Dashed lines demarcate 95% confidence limits. For tempering parameter, temperature is expressed in °R, and time in hours. More
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Published: 01 December 1995
Fig. 6-35 Creep-rupture properties of Type HK-40 alloy. The scatter bands shown are set arbitrarily at ±20% of the stress for the central tendency line. Such a range usually embraces test data for similar alloy compositions, but should not be considered statistically significant confidence More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... procedure is not strictly governed by hardening temperature. All that matters is that the heating process does not end at too low a temperature, because sometimes it is necessary for the transformation into austenite. The heating temperature is limited by the solidus-line temperature, since the process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...        ( in   % ) P ¯ P , α = 156 ( 20 ) ( 25 ) 100 = 31.2 % S ( P ¯ P , α ) = ( 947.2 19 ) 1 / 2 = 7.0606 % CV = 7.0606 31.2 100 = 22.6 % 95 %  confidence limit = ( 2.093 ) ( 7.0606 ) ( 19...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Quality Control ,” John Wiley & Sons , New York , 2 nd ed., 1981 , p 365 - 390 13. Chou Y-M. , Owen D.B. , and Borrego S.A. , “ Lower Confidence Limits on Process Capability Indices ,” Journal of Quality Technology , Vol 22 , 1990 , p 223 - 229 10.1080...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of internal visual inspection include: Large-scale coverage rapidly achieved Lower cost of inspection activity itself Confidence based on extensive history of use Limitations of Internal Visual Inspection Limitations of internal visual inspection include: Subsurface defects cannot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... The data are given in Fig. 5-8 and listed in Table 5-4 . The test results are uniform for loads of 10 to 50 kgf. Lower hardnesses were obtained at loads of 1 and 5 kgf. Table 5-4 shows that the 95 percent confidence limits increase as the test load decreases and as the hardness of the test block...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... values are used for design. It is for this reason that parts and assemblies should be laboratory tested, as well as field tested, in order to have more confidence in the performance of the actual mechanism. Fig. 9 Relationship between fatigue limit and tensile strength in polished and in severely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of Edenhofer ( Ref 8 , 24 ). The graph is extrapolated over the original limit of 45 h. The fit equations are y = 3 , 8722 − 0.236 x + 2.361 x , y = − 0.789 − 0.124 x + 1.958 x , and y = 0.758 − 0.057 x + 0.918 x and r 2 = 0.993, 0.995...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the operating mechanism, applications, advantages, and limitations of Brinell hardness testing, Rockwell hardness testing, Vickers hardness testing, Scleroscope hardness testing, and microhardness testing. In addition, the general precautions and selection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... limitations and their implications are discussed. The article presents a case study and finally introduces a different value-add application flow capitalizing on the wafer-level fault localization system. 22 nm technology device accelerated yield device failing memory test failure analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... of permissible size, general shape, or weight. These constraints may then influence material selection and foundry practice. For example, a size limitation for a given load-carrying capacity will require the choice of a higher strength material. Additional design constraints to consider are cost, material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... solution models. These have the advantage that there is substantial experimental literature that deals with the thermodynamics of impurity additions, particularly for established materials such as ferrous- and copper-base alloys. However, there are fundamental limitations in handling concentrated solutions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... are limited by the inherently high reactivity of the metal. Thus, nontraditional and, therefore, high-cost processes have been the norm in the industry. Sponge fines of titanium and aluminum-vanadium master alloy powder produced by conventional P/M techniques have been used in the BE process to produce P/M...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... are nonhomogeneous (layered) and anistropic (orthotropic), it was necessary to develop specialized test methods. In addition, since early composite development was limited to aerospace companies, each company developed its own procedures. Eventually, standards for testing composites were developed. The two most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... and confidence have not yet been gained in repairing the excavated areas and ensuring their continued safety. In spite of some of these limitations, sample removal and testing is becoming increasingly common because it eliminates a major uncertainty in life-assessment procedures—i.e., the uncertainty due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... and eventual failure of components and systems in the processing and manufacturing industries and reductions in the service life of components. Thermal sprayed coatings prevent, or limit, the effects of corrosion and wear by providing protection against chemical and physical interactions of a material...