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confidence limits

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... – 100 . Metallurgists have relied, in general, on qualitative descriptions of microstructures. Structural features are rated by comparison to charts describing many types of structural features. For some samples, the accuracy of such ratings, although limited, is adequate for the intended...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... condition, and the averages and 95 percent confidence limits were calculated. The results are listed in Table 5-10 . In general, the test data show that the accuracy improves as the test load increases and the sample hardness decreases, i.e., as the diagonal length increases. The strain-hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-consuming. No single inspection technique is applicable across all potential defect types. Limited confidence/awareness of newer techniques. Some areas may still be difficult to inspect reliably without direct access, e.g., vessel nozzles with reinforcement plates and flange faces on vessel nozzles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the operating mechanism, applications, advantages, and limitations of Brinell hardness testing, Rockwell hardness testing, Vickers hardness testing, Scleroscope hardness testing, and microhardness testing. In addition, the general precautions and selection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... are nonhomogeneous (layered) and anistropic (orthotropic), it was necessary to develop specialized test methods. In addition, since early composite development was limited to aerospace companies, each company developed its own procedures. Eventually, standards for testing composites were developed. The two most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... limitations and their implications are discussed. The article presents a case study and finally introduces a different value-add application flow capitalizing on the wafer-level fault localization system. 22 nm technology device accelerated yield device failing memory test failure analysis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., as well as field tested, in order to have more confidence in the performance of the actual mechanism. Fig. 9 Relationship between fatigue limit and tensile strength in polished and in severely notched steel specimens. Source: Ref 4 Because mechanical properties are closely related...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
.... With respect to HIP, this process uses the same consolidation equipment as that used for closing casting porosity, although pressure and temperature conditions differ. Most HIP processes use metal can technology, and fairly complex shapes are produced. Limited machining envelopes are incorporated in the design...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.9781627083096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... by dilute solution models. These have the advantage that there is substantial experimental literature that deals with the thermodynamics of impurity additions, particularly for established materials such as ferrous- and copper-base alloys. However, there are fundamental limitations in handling concentrated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to corroborate the data and give confidence to the analysis path set forth to determine root cause. Once a destructive analysis has begun, there is no way back and limited opportunity to re-measure and recreate fail data. The sample will change form as it is mechanically or FIB (Focus Ion Beam) cross...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... from other locations. Plant operators generally are reluctant to permit removal of samples from operating components, because sufficient experience and confidence have not yet been gained in repairing the excavated areas and ensuring their continued safety. In spite of some of these limitations, sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... the use of electrochemical techniques to study MIC. Table 6 Electrochemical monitoring methods used for MIC Measurement Remarks Corrosion potential Easy to do, difficult to interpret without other information Redox potential Limited value—not selective and not directly related...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... by experimentation or evaluation of part outputs), meeting parts specifications will necessarily result. The idea behind true SPC is that the results of a process can be guaranteed if none of the relevant process parameters are allowed to stray outside of previously established control limits...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... (integrated circuits) has expanded. Although DIP (dual in-line package) and QFN (quad-flat no-leads) packages are still widely used; they are being replaced in most high-volume applications with WLPs (wafer level packages). Board space limitations are driving complex sensor and 3D package development...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... This tutorial will assist the analyst in making decisions on frontside access both in package or System in Package (SIP) and multi-chip module (MCM) using mechanical milling, laser decap, plasma or wet etch methods. How to endpoint while protecting the circuit and limitations of the techniques will be addressed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of interest (e.g., buried tracks) and the structures surrounding it due to tool and technique limitations. In these cases, CAD layout polygons can be overlaid onto the live microscope image to visualize all the circuit features in the area of interest on the DUT. The overlaid polygons are then used as a guide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... at which the circuit is causing the shmoo fail. In some cases, TR-LADA also improves the localization resolution. At the time of this writing, none of the LSM vendors have announced a TR-LADA feature. We limit the discussion here to TR-LADA because there have been no publications on time-resolved SDL...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., environmental preservation, and the economics of pipeline operation. The vast majority of underground pipelines are made of carbon steel, based on American Petroleum Institute API 5L specifications ( Ref 10 ). Typically, maximum composition limits are specified for carbon, manganese, phosphorous, and sulfur...