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commercially pure iron

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... generalized manner. The chapter provides a discussion on the constitution of commercially pure iron, subsequently leading to discussion on the iron-carbon alloy system. The chapter also describes the effect of carbon on the constitution of iron and of the solubility of carbon in iron. It provides information...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Steels are over 95% Fe, so a good starting point for understanding steel is to study the nature of solid iron. This chapter provides information on the composition, phase transformation, and associated changes in the crystal structure of pure iron at varying temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... temperature coefficient of resistivity is 0.0065/°C (0.0036/°F). Commercially pure irons with purity levels of 99.6 to 99.8 are available in a variety of shapes. These irons have a saturation induction of about 2.15 T (21.5 kG), a specific gravity of 7.86, and an electrical resistivity of approximately 13...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... nickel alloys. Corrosion- and heat-resistant nickel alloys include commercially pure and low-alloy nickels, nickel-copper alloys, nickel-molybdenum and nickel-silicon alloys, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, and nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum-copper alloys. Special nickel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... slightly, as indicated by the dashed lines in Fig. 10.1 . In ferrous alloys, iron is the prime alloying element, but carbon and other alloying elements are frequently used. Based on carbon content, there are three types of ferrous alloys: irons, steels, and cast irons. Commercially pure iron contains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... anodic position on the galvanic series and, as shown in Fig. 27.1 , can be subject to rather severe corrosion. The corrosion problem is due to the impurity elements iron, nickel, and copper. The severe effect of iron on the corrosion susceptibility of pure magnesium is shown in Fig. 27.2 . However, the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... (approximately 60% of the density of iron) that can be highly strengthened by alloying and deformation processing. Titanium is nonmagnetic and has good heat-transfer properties. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is somewhat lower than that of steels and less than half that of aluminum. Titanium and its alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... 5 100 (212) 0.011 10 100 (212) 0.001 Saturated 100 (212) 0.001 Mercuric cyanide Saturated Room Nil Mercury 100 Up to 38 (up to 100) Satisfactory 100 Room Nil ... 371 (700) 3.03 Methyl alcohol 91 35 (95) Nil 95 100 (212) <0.01 Mercury + iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... very probable that copper alloys were produced inadvertently during smelting. Until recently, copper ranked only behind iron as the most widely used commercial metal. However, due to its rather high cost, it has been replaced by lower-cost metals in some applications and now ranks third behind iron and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... can give a small strength increase in irons that would otherwise contain free ferrite. Additions above the levels required for pearlite stabilization should be avoided to prevent embrittlement. Tin is normally added as commercially pure tin. Care should be taken to avoid material contaminated with...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... strength and elongation values for as-cast and heat-treated ductile irons. The manufacture of high-quality ductile iron begins with the careful selection of charge materials that will give a relatively pure cast iron, free of the undesirable residual elements sometimes found in other cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... ~65 Source: Ref 1.5 As a structural metal, titanium is still in its infancy, especially when compared with iron and steel. The first commercial titanium was produced in 1948. The total production that year was just over 1800 kg (4000 lb). By 1955, the production had grown to over 9000 kg...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... used for hardening many commercial metals, such as nickel-base superalloys, stainless steels, and brasses. Up to 35 atomic weight percent of zinc, the major alloying element in brasses, can dissolve in solid copper. The most important use of solid-solution strengthening is found in iron-carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... cooling, as shown in Fig. 2.18 . Note that an allotropic transformation is a solid-state phase transformation, and as such, occurs at a constant temperature during either heating or cooling. Under equilibrium cooling conditions, the solidification of pure iron from the liquid occurs at 1540 °C (2800 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... , Vol 197 , 1961 , p 122 – 131 22. Koistinen D.P. and Marburger R.E. , A General Equation Prescribing the Extent of the Austenite-Martensite Transformation in Pure Iron-Carbon Alloys and Plain Carbon Steels , Acta Metall. , Vol 7 , 1959 , p 59 – 60 10.1016/0001-6160(59)90170-1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... various temperatures. The phases that can be present under equilibrium conditions are: Ferrite: Soft and weak phase, essentially pure iron with a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure; iron atoms are at the corners of a cube and one is in the center of the cube. Pearlite: Harder than ferrite and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... because in all of them comparatively pure α-iron (ferrite) is the dominant microstructural feature. Consequently we shall be much concerned in this chapter with factors that determine size and shape of ferrite grains. Pearlite may be present, but only in small amounts; cementite as such, however, is an...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... chapter. Most steel products are subsequently hot worked and/or heat treated to alter the cast microstructure and to improve the properties of the steel. On the other hand, cast irons are most often used commercially in the as-cast condition. The various regions or fields in which the phases are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the complex polarization characteristics of active-passive metals and addresses related problems in interpreting their corrosion behavior. It begins by presenting several experimentally derived polarization curves for iron, comparing and contrasting them with the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Industries Federation. Source: Ref 5 Pure iron by itself is very limited in engineering usefulness. Carbon is the main alloying element in the different crystalline forms of iron that are called steel, and it produces the superior physical properties that make steel so useful. Even in the highly...