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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.edfatr.t56090083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-462-8
... even beyond the critical angle. SIL solutions are introduced in four main parts in this chapter: types, materials, quality and aberration, and commercial solutions. SIL Types Typically, there are two basic types of refractive SIL ( Table 1 ): Hemispherical SIL (hSIL), central SIL (cSIL...
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 4 Pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite (light areas) in commercially processed bar of a hypoeutectoid steel that was water quenched from 1050 to 805 °C (1920 to 1480 °F) and then air cooled. (a) Cooled from 805 °C (1480 °F) to room temperature in still air, which resulted in most More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of alpha must be formed at elevated temperatures, while those with predominantly bcc structures exhibit varying degrees of room-temperature formability. At room temperature, commercially pure titanium is composed primarily of the alpha phase. As alloying elements are added to titanium, they tend...
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 1.16 The Armstrong/International Titanium Powder process. The TiCl 4 is directly injected in a vapor form, resulting in the reduction of TiCl 4 to commercially pure titanium. Courtesy of K. Akhtar, Armstrong/Crystal, Sept 2013 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... not pose serious challenges during forming, forging, welding, and machining. Forming The ductility of nickel-base alloys in the annealed condition makes them adaptable to virtually all methods of cold forming. Within this group of alloys, which includes the commercially pure nickels, the nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., cast Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy was extensively evaluated for use in commercial gas turbine engines. Figure 14.3 shows the cast alloy in the form of low-pressure turbine (LPT) blades for high-bypass ratio, high-thrust commercial gas turbine engines. Figure 14.4 shows a rotor with cast LPT blades of Ti...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... boundaries and between dendrite arms. Manganese and chromium are included in the group of elements that form predominantly second phase constituents, because in commercial alloys they have very low equilibrium solid solubilities. In the case of many compositions containing manganese, this is because iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of aluminum can be classified into two categories. In the first category are effects from insoluble, intermetallic constituent particles. These can be formed from trace impurity elements, most notably iron, and/or from purposely added alloying elements such as Al-Cu-Mg constituents in 2 xxx alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... groups: unalloyed (commercially pure) grades, α- and near-α alloys, α-β alloys, and β-alloys. Selection of an unalloyed grade or higher strength alloy depends on desired mechanical properties, service requirements, processing considerations (e.g., forming and welding requirements) and other factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... that the form of the carbide phase has been changed to small spherical particles uniformly distributed in a continuous matrix of soft ferrite. The next chapter illustrates that microstructural manipulation of this nature is vital to developing commercially useful steels and cast irons. Metallographers must...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...). For elevated-temperature applications, the most commonly used alloy is Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo + Si. This alloy is primarily used for turbine components and in sheet form for after-burner structures and various “hot” airframe applications. Titanium aluminides may displace the latter alloy but not for commercial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article examines the composition and properties of magnesium and its alloys. It discusses alloy and temper designations, applications and product forms, and commercial alloy systems, and explains how alloying elements affect physical and mechanical properties, processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of Titanium Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Tubing,” in this book). Alloy Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn was cold formed by Rockwell International Company into over 200 detailed parts on the B-1B bomber. Numerous titanium sheet metal applications are commonly incorporated into both commercial and military airframes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract The case for using stainless steel in appliances of all types, whether they are commercial or residential, relates to it being able to provide the best value over the intended service life. This chapter describes some of the qualities in any material considered for food contact, namely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... in a generalized manner. The chapter provides a discussion on the constitution of commercially pure iron, subsequently leading to discussion on the iron-carbon alloy system. The chapter also describes the effect of carbon on the constitution of iron and of the solubility of carbon in iron. It provides information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... beryl concentrates to be between 10 and 12 wt%. Beryl is currently the only beryllium-bearing mineral of industrial importance. It contains up to 5 wt% Be and has been found in commercially acceptable form in many pegmatites. However, these in turn are exposed on less than a small fraction of 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... concerns such as forming speed, rolling direction, rerolling, and heat treating precipitation-hardened alloys. It presents several application examples involving carbide-hardened cobalt-base and other superalloys, and it concludes with a discussion on superplasticity and its adaptation to commercial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... commercial types of −200-mesh powder are given in Table 19.1 [ Hausner 1965d ]. The composition of the source materials, after melting into ingot form and after attritioning to −200-mesh powder, demonstrates the influence of each stage of the operation. Electrolytic-flake source material represents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... in clutch hubs formed using a three-step transfer die process. It also discusses the role of FEA and commercial software in the design of progressive dies. die design finite element analysis forming dies progressive die forming transfer die forming IN PROGRESSIVE DIE FORMING, a series...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... 6.1 ). Forming Grades and Properties Low-carbon steels, coated and uncoated, are generally supplied as commercial-quality, drawing-quality, and drawing-quality special-killed grades. AISI designations of some of the draw quality steels are given in Table 6.1 . The compositions of steels...