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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
.... It then describes the types of damage observed in engine components and the methods used to mitigate problems. It also discusses the results of analyses that led to changes in design or approach and examines fatigue-related issues in turbine engines used in commercial aircraft. aeronautical gas turbine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... has been steady growth. Early Applications The first commercial applications of titanium were jet engine parts for the J-57 engine produced by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft (P&WA) for the B-52 bomber. Titanium replaced steel parts whose weight prevented the engine (and therefore the aircraft...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... in incorporating advanced composites on commercial aircraft. In 2011, the first Boeing Dreamliner with a 50% composite airframe was introduced into service. The distinguishing feature of the materials covered in this book is that they all have low densities. Densities range from as low as 0.80 g/cm 3 (0.030...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... sheet alloy, called 17S, was based on the German Duralumin. It was successfully produced in the 1920s and was used to build the first commercial all-metal passenger aircraft in the United States, the Ford Trimotor ( FIG. 8.12 ). About 200 Ford Trimotor planes were built in the late 1920s and early...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... superalloys were touted as a great leap forward but were not successful in achieving commercial development. Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, on the other hand, have achieved a very limited use in aircraft gas turbines. A problem for the ODS superalloys is manufacturing complexities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... promising in the late 1940s and early 1950s to a military on the cutting edge of developing jet engines, supersonic aircraft, missiles, and lighter-weight trucks, tanks, landing craft, and other hardware for the Cold War and the Korean conflict. The problem was the lack of industry producing titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... “they don’t rot [corrode] and they don’t get tired [fatigue].” Corrosion of aluminum alloys is a major cost and a constant maintenance problem for both commercial and military aircraft. The corrosion resistance of composites can result in major savings in supportability costs. Carbon fiber composites cause...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... housings, ordnance, and other parts for military aircraft and missiles; and in gas turbine engines and brake components for commercial passenger aircraft. Additional aerospace applications include rotor hubs for helicopters and flap tracks for fighters. In the chemical-process industry, components...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... years has allowed further development of dislocation theory and clarification of the mechanisms of deformation and fracture at the atomic level. Brittle fracture has also plagued the aviation industry. In the 1950s, several Comets, the first commercial jet aircraft, produced in Britain, mysteriously...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... according to the specific instructions outlined in the structural repair manual or technical order for the aircraft. Each such manual is prepared by the aircraft manufacturer and approved by the appropriate governing agency, such as the Federal Aviation Agency for commercial aircraft or the Air Force/Navy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... holes. (b) External doubler repair. Source: Ref 11.14 . (c) Repair of an aluminum component in a commercial aircraft by the low-pressure cold spray system to protect against corrosion. Source: Ref 11.6 There are reports of dense aluminum and composite coatings for repair of steels and cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... apply to non-fail-safe structures. The military requirements (MIL-A-87221, MIL-A-83444, and MIL-STD-1530) go into great detail with regard to the assumptions to be made in the analysis for initial crack size and crack development. Otherwise, they are very similar to those for commercial aircraft...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... installation, various sealing operations must be performed. Last, the leading edges, wing tips, and control surfaces of the wing torque box must be assembled. A typical fighter aircraft can have 200,000 to 300,000 mechanical fasteners, whereas a commercial airliner or transport aircraft can have 1,500,000...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... that was inadequately inspected. As a result of one failure on a commercial aircraft at the end of the 1980s, there was concern that revert should be limited to noncritical titanium alloy applications. However, titanium turnings were exempt from concern because the FAA reported that “chips or machine turnings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of the components in commercial aircraft are “cad” plated. Cadmium is also an addition for some dental alloys because it increases the strength of the filling. The increase in strength improves the wear resistance of the filling and prolongs its life expectancy. However, cadmium has adverse environmental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... titanium landing gear beam for Boeing 757 aircraft Titanium has the ability to passivate and thereby exhibit a high degree of immunity against attack by most mineral acids and chlorides. Pure titanium is nontoxic; commercially pure titanium and some titanium alloys generally are biologically...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... for landing gear components on commercial aircraft where the size of aluminum components would not fit within the landing gear space envelope. Due to their outstanding resistance to fatigue, high-temperature capability, and resistance to corrosion, titanium alloys comprise approximately 42...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... In the early 1990s, new alloys such as TiB21S and the titanium aluminides (Ti 3 Al and TiAl) received increasing attention. Sports applications such as lightweight bicycle frames and the explosive demand for titanium golf drivers occurred. Use of titanium by Boeing for commercial aircraft alone increased...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Relatively low cost Aluminum is a consumer metal of great importance. Aluminum and its alloys are used for foil, beverage cans, cooking and food-processing utensils, architectural and electrical applications, and structures for boats, aircraft, and other transportation vehicles. As a result...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Franklin St. Hanson, MA 02341-1506 Tel: 800-225-0304 Fax: 781-293-3753 All forms of titanium for commercial and aircraft applications Rickard Specialty Metals & Engineeering Inc. 1707 S. Grove Ave. Ontario, CA 91761 Tel: 800-966-4922 Fax: 909-947-4909 Suppliers of titanium forgings, sheet, plate...