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combustion furnaces

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... combustion area (i.e., furnace walls) and the heat-absorbing surfaces in the convection path, such as superheaters and reheaters. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 10.1 Water enters the waterwall tubes at the furnace bottom and turns into a mixture of water and steam that leaves the waterwall tubes at the top...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in furnace and 15 min out of furnace. Source: Ref 21 Cyclic oxidation resistance of several stainless steels in air cycling to 980 to 1040 °C (1800 to 1900 °F) temperature range Table 3.4 Cyclic oxidation resistance of several stainless steels in air cycling to 980 to 1040 °C (1800 to 1900 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in Lower Furnace and Superheaters 13.4 Summary 13.3.1 Furnace Floor Tubes 13.3.2 Smelt Spout Openings 13.3.3 Air Port Openings 13.3.4 Waterwalls above “Cut Line” 13.3.5 Superheater Tube Corrosion A brief description of a black liquor recovery boiler along with its fuel and combustion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... combustion. Utility boilers with different combustion arrangements ( Ref 1.1 ) include: Tangentially fired boilers: The air-fuel mixture is introduced into the furnace from the four corners of the furnace, tangentially. Wall-fired boilers: Multiple burners are located along a single wall...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... for combustion. Ore, fuel, and flux descend the stack and encounter hot combustion gases that are rich in carbon monoxide moving up the stack; this results in heat exchange and chemical reactions. Molten metal, which results from the reactions, collects at the furnace bottom. The impurities in the ore and coke...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...-type pressure-quench vacuum furnace. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 8 Gas-fired fluidized-bed furnace with internal combustion. 1, insulating lagging; 2, refractory material; 3, air and gas distribution box; 4, fluidized bed; 5, parts to be treated. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 9 Externally gas-fired...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... that: Normalizing furnaces are usually heated with electricity, gas, or oil and seldom use protective atmospheres beyond that degree of protection provided automatically by products of combustion. Furnace design depends largely on the size and shape of the workpieces. A variety of furnaces are used; the primary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... , Natesan K. , Ganesan P. , and Lai G. , Ed., ASM International , 1995 , p 645 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Fuels, Combustion Environments, and Boilers 12.3 Boiler Tube Fireside Corrosion Problems 12.4 Corrosion Mechanisms 12.5 Corrosion Protection for Furnace Waterwalls 12.6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... is manufactured from the same heat-resisting material as it would be if manufactured for an electrical heating system ( Fig. 5 ). The fluidized-bed container is contained within the furnace combustion chamber, which in turn is surrounded by the installation material and the furnace casing. Many different types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... (1475 to 2050 °F) and gas velocities greater than 200 m/s (656 ft/s). In coal-fired boilers, it is well known that fly-ash erosion can be a serious problem for boiler tubes. When coal (which contains ash) is combusted in the lower furnace of the boiler, some of the ash drops out of the furnace from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... combustible gases are admitted to the furnace. The process operating temperature is in the region of 570 °C (1060 °F). The normal combustion gas ignition temperature is 750 °C (1350 °F), so any temperature below this will cause an explosion if the process gas is not admitted according to the furnace...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Fe-18Cr-12Ni-2Ti 1150 (2100) 18 0.26 Fe-18Cr-12Ni-2Ti 1210 (2210) 18 0.0001 (at p N 2 : 1 atm) Ni-20%Fe 1000 (1832) 15 NH<sub>3</sub> content measured at the exhaust end of the tube furnace at different temperatures when 100% NH<sub>3</sub> was injected Table 4.11...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... methods are classified in two ways: by fire response characteristics and by particular applications of polymeric materials. fire resistance flammability test polymers A MATERIAL IS FLAMMABLE if it is subject to easy ignition and rapid flaming combustion. Combustion is defined as an oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... powder (~200 mesh), so as to facilitate its complete combustion during the combustion process. A portion of the primary air is heated by means of heat from the flue gases and then mixed with cold air as per the requirements of the PC. Normally the temperature is maintained at 60 to 70 °C (140 to 160 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...) or higher, compounds in the ash may become molten and corrosion attack can become severe. This mode of corrosion is frequently referred to as “oil-ash corrosion” for boilers or furnaces fired with fuel oils. During combustion of the fuel oils that contain vanadium, sulfur, and sodium, low-melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... resistance, fabricability, and strength Haynes 230 Combustion environments, nitric acid catalyst grids, high-temperature bellows, industrial furnace fixtures and hardware, strand annealing tubes, thermocouple protection tubes Strength, stability, and oxidation resistance up to 1150 °C (2100 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... with its use. Second, it speeds up the rate of carbon transport from the gas-to-steel surface so that carburizing rates are increased, particularly at short times. Many bladesmiths use furnaces that are heated by combustion of air-natural gas or air-propane. Both natural gas (CH 4 ) and propane (C 3 H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... elements usually are encapsulated or located in the furnace that holds the process retort. If the furnace is heated by natural gas, the burners usually are located in a remote heater box and the heated combustion air is distributed to the process retort. Alternatively, the combustion products can heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... application. The air we breathe, termed a natural atmosphere, contains approximately 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% moisture, by volume. Such atmospheres exist in any heat-treating furnace when the work chamber contains no products of combustion, or when specially prepared atmospheres are not involved...