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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Abstract Abstract Steel heated in contact with air at temperatures in the tempering range takes on various temper colors due to the formation of a thin oxide film. This appendix provides information on the cause and source of oxidation of steel and time-temperature effect on SAE 1035 steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...Abstract Abstract Intermetallic phase precipitates in aluminum alloys can often be identified without resorting to chemical analysis. Very often the determination can be made based on the shape, color, and refractive properties of the particular phase. This chapter explains how these visual...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... a max, μm R a max, μin. 3 60–120 1.0 40 4 120–180 0.75 30 7 240–320 0.30 8 8 500 0.15 4 Parameters for oxide film coloring of stainless steel Table 2 Parameters for oxide film coloring of stainless steel Heat treatment time Color Oxide film thickness, nm...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... and their effect on the mechanical properties of steel. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements and the formation of oxide colors. microstructure tempering MOST STEELS that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering . Tempering improves the toughness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... account of various factors pertinent to the characterization of materials and analysis of optical components, namely transmission, haze, yellowness, refractive index, surface irregularity, birefringence, internal contamination, surface gloss, and color. In addition, details on ad hoc tests used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... thermocouple Radiation Pyrometers Blacksmiths have been heating and quenching steels for many centuries, and they have been able to control the temperature of the hot steel by observing the color of the light (radiation) coming from it. Table A2 presents a typical approximation of the color...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., and fiber-optic light source. Figure 4-1 Schematic illustrating characteristics of light waves, (a) the amplitude is a measure of light intensity; as the amplitude (α 1 , or α 2 ) increases, brightness increases. ( b ) color depends on wavelength; the shortest visible wavelength (λ 1 ) is blue...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., Ref. 66. Staining and heat tinting procedures for identification of sigma phase and carbides in Stellite 21, wrought Co alloy Table 3-2 Staining and heat tinting procedures for identification of sigma phase and carbides in Stellite 21, wrought Co alloy Coloring process Method Purpose...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
.... Figure 11.22 shows historical and conservatively projected AHSS content in vehicles for the period 2006 to 2020. New innovations in manufacturing processes are expected to contribute positively to the projected growth of AHSS ( Ref 11.1 ). A color-coded illustration in Fig. 11.6(a) and (b) shows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... be shallower, while for low magnification examination a deeper etch yields better image contrast. Some etchants produce selective results in that only one phase will be attacked or colored. A vast number of etchants have been developed; the more commonly used etchants are given in Tables 1 to 6 . Typical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... with a propane torch to an orange color for approximately 20 s and immediately quenched in a beaker of water. The temperature produces austenite over a short length of the rods, and the quench converts it to martensite + retained austenite. If the first rod is placed in a vice with the discolored heated section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., this bending of light, or refraction, is the feature that makes the lens work. However, refraction can create aberrations. Because the beam of light (called white light) is composed of various primary colors (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet), the colors observed in a rainbow, and each color has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... picric acid General segregation 4% picral or Winsteard’s (modified) reagent Nonmetallic inclusions 4% picral Epitaxial ferrite Marshall’s reagent Cold-worked ferrite 2 nital or Marshall’s reagent To color or darken Carbides, but not ferrite Boiling alkaline sodium picrate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... an identifying strand. It may be colored plastic, or the diameter of a single wire, or part of the construction configuration. Bolt heads are another good example of markings which give information. In addition to the radial markings on the heads which tell the strength level, the manufacturer’s markings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... for identification of inclusions or second phases. It can be photographed for record or report purposes, in black and white or in color. The hard constituents are readily chipped and pulled out of the matrix and may seriously scratch the specimen. On the other hand, soft constituents are easily gouged out...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... , Color Metallography , American Society for Metals , Metals Park, OH , 1977 . 1. Mridha S. and Jack D.H. , Metallography , 1982 , 15 , 163 10.1016/0026-0800(82)90020-9 . 1. Kirkaldy J.S. , von Destinon-Forstmann J. and Brigham R.J. , Can. Metall...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and the reflected light reaches the observer, as schematically shown in Fig. 5.1 . The resolution that can be achieved depends on the wavelength of the radiation used. For visible light with green color, the resulting resolution is in the range of 220 to 250 nm corresponding to a maximum magnification of about...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... is that it is said to foster creativity through the use of images, curved lines, and colors. Mind-mapping images are free-flowing with an idea in the center, supporting concepts arranged around it, and lines connecting the supporting concepts to the center concept. In a problem-solving scenario, the central idea...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7