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cold-work tool steel

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.27 As cast structure of ASTM A681 D2 cold work tool steel. A eutectic constituent composed of carbides (white) and austenite can be observed. The austenite has decomposed after cooling in both images, leading to dark regions of ferrite carbide agglomerates or tempered martensite More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The oil-hardening cold-work tool steels, designated as group O steels in the AISI classification system, derive their high hardness and wear resistance from high carbon and modest alloy contents. This chapter describes the microstructures and hardenability of oil-hardening tool steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The air-hardening cold-work tool steels, designated as group A steels in the AISI classification system, achieve their processing and performance characteristics with combinations of high carbon and moderately high alloy content. This chapter describes the microstructural features...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract The high-carbon, high-chromium tool steels, designated as group D steels in the AISI classification system, are the most highly alloyed cold-work steels. This chapter describes the microstructures and hardenability of high-carbon, high-chromium tool steels and discusses the processes...
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 6 Microstructures of cold work tool steels. (a) AISI D6, which is similar to D3. (b) AISI D2. (c) An 8% Cr tool steel with brand name VF800AT. (d) AISI O1. Regions are typical for midradius of a 63 mm (2½ in.) bar after hardening and tempering to 60 HRC. (a–d) Etched with 4% nital More
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 18 Retained austenite in two cold work tool steels after hardening and tempering. (a) D2, with 60 HRC. (b) O1, with 54 HRC. For both, the retained austenite content is higher than expected (due to overheating in the hardening treatment). (c) O1 punch from which the microstructure in (b More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The possible classification for tool steels is their division into four groups according to their final application: hot-worked, cold-worked, plastic mold, and high-speed tool steels. This chapter mainly follows such division by application, but the grade nomenclatures used here...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract There is a fairly wide variety of different tool steels for different applications. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) classification of tool steels includes seven major categories: water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... high-speed, water-hardening, shock-resistant, and hot and cold work tool steels. It discusses the influence of alloy design on the evolution of microstructure and properties during solidification, heat treating, and hardening operations. It also describes critical phase transformations and the effects...
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 7 Tempering curves for most common tool steels used in cold working. Tempering curves are obtained after hardening small (25 mm or 1 in.) specimens of all materials with the usual hardening temperature: 920 °C for S1, 800 °C for O1, 940 °C for D6 (similar to D3), 1010 °C for D2, and 1030 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.35 ASTM A681–D2, tool steel for cold working. Annealed to 250 HB. Carbides in a ferritic matrix. (a) Conventional ingot, 830 mm (33 in.) diameter subjected to forging reduction via hot working of 5.6:1 (measured as the ratio of cross sections before and after work). (b) An ingot More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... include water-hardening; shock-resisting; oil-hardening cold-work; air-hardening, medium-alloy cold-work; high-carbon, high-chromium cold-work; low-alloy, special-purpose; mold; hot-work; and high-speed tool steels. air-hardening tool steel annealing austenitizing high-carbon tool steel high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the failure aspects of tool steels. The discussion covers the classification, chemical composition, main characteristics, and several failures of tool steels and their relation to heat treatment. The tool steels covered are hot work, cold work, plastic mold...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article provides an overview of tool steels, discussing their composition, properties, and behaviors. It covers all types and classes of wrought and powder metal tool steels, including high-speed steels, hot and cold-work steels, shock-resisting steels, and mold steels...
Image
Published: 30 April 2021
Fig. 8.9 ASTM G132 type of two-body abrasion test (alumina sandpaper) results on the hardest alloy steel (52100 at 60 HRC); a typical cold-worked tool steel, D2 at 60 HRC; and a 1020 steel reference at 95 HRB. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... of the proper steel for a given function from the large number of steels available. The AISI classification system arranges tool steels into groups that are based on prominent characteristics such as alloying (for example, tungsten or molybdenum high-speed steels), application (for example, cold-work...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... to hot work, cold work, shock-resisting, special-purpose, and mold steels; and A686 ( Ref 11.6 ) covers water-hardening tool steels. Table 11.3 lists a variety of high-speed and tool steel grades and examples of the typical applications in which those grades are used. Common applications for various...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... symbol Water-hardening tool steels W Shock-resisting tool steels S Oil-hardening cool work tool steels O Air-hardening, medium-alloy cold work tool steel A High-carbon, high-chromium cold work tool steels D Mold steels P Hot work tool steels, chromium, tungsten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... silicon-molybdenum cast iron 10–12 5.6–6.5 Iron carbon alloys 9.3–12 5.2–6.9 Pure Terbium (Tb) 9.8–13 5.4–6.9 Cobalt chromium nickel tungsten 10–12 5.8–6.7 High-carbon high-chromium cold work tool steel 11 6.2 Tungsten high-speed tool steel 8.5–14 4.7–7.8 Commercially pure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... and deformation, dimensional stability, toughness, and through hardenability ( Ref 16.25 ). Tool steels are classified by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) based on alloying (i.e., tungsten, molybdenum), application (cold work, hot work steels), and heat treatment (i.e., water hardening, air hardening...