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cold working

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract With cold work, mechanical strength (measured either by yield strength or ultimate tensile strength) increases and ductility (measured by elongation, reduction of area, or fracture toughness) normally decreases. This chapter discusses the mechanisms that produce these changes and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... include water-hardening; shock-resisting; oil-hardening cold-work; air-hardening, medium-alloy cold-work; high-carbon, high-chromium cold-work; low-alloy, special-purpose; mold; hot-work; and high-speed tool steels. air-hardening tool steel annealing austenitizing high-carbon tool steel high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The possible classification for tool steels is their division into four groups according to their final application: hot-worked, cold-worked, plastic mold, and high-speed tool steels. This chapter mainly follows such division by application, but the grade nomenclatures used here are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... deformation rate and the prevailing stress state during the forming process. It is normal to divide working (or forming) into hot and cold working, notwithstanding the fact that in latter decades “warm working” processes have been cited and used more often as important alternatives in steel processing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... pressures for hot deformation, but they are not as susceptible to rupturing as the temperature is lowered. Although most titanium alloys can be cold worked (at least to a limited extent), unalloyed and all-beta alloys are most amenable to cold deformation. Protective coatings are used on ingots and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Annealing, a heat treatment process, is used to soften metals that have been hardened by cold working. This chapter discusses the following three distinct processes that can occur during annealing: recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The types of processes that occur during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses bulk deformation processes and how they are used to reshape metals and refine solidification structures. It begins by describing the differences between hot and cold working along with their respective advantages. It then discusses various forging methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of two commonly classified metalworking processes, namely hot working and cold working. Primary metalworking processes, such as the bulk deformation processes used to conduct the initial breakdown of cast ingots, are always conducted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... work Table 2 Factors in analysis of cold forging failures Preforge factors Raw material —chemistry, microstructure, mechanical properties, size, surface finish, and cleanliness Shape sequencing —general nature of shape to be created; strain, strain rate, and load requirements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the failure aspects of tool steels. The discussion covers the classification, chemical composition, main characteristics, and several failures of tool steels and their relation to heat treatment. The tool steels covered are hot work, cold work, plastic mold, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract There is a fairly wide variety of different tool steels for different applications. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) classification of tool steels includes seven major categories: water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used to detect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes, applications, and limitations of forming and shaping various materials. It discusses bulk forming, hot working, cold working, sheet forming, and polymer and powder processing. bulk forming cold working hot working polymer processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract This chapter opens with a discussion of the classification of rod and tube extrusion processes. The standard processes involve hot working (extrusion at temperatures above room temperature), but some specialized cold working processes are also used for rod and tube extrusion. The next...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter presents an overview of heat treating of nonferrous alloys. First, a brief discussion on the effects of cold work and annealing on nonferrous alloys is presented. This is followed by a discussion on the mechanisms involved in the more commonly used heat treating procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... environments. It explains how composition and microstructure influence SCC, as do mechanical properties such as strength and fracture toughness and processes such as welding and cold work. It also discusses the role of materials selection and best practices for welding. carbon steel low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., microstructure, heat treatment, cold working, and stress intensity. It also provides information on stress-corrosion testing, mitigation techniques, and basic cracking mechanisms. cold working copper alloys stress-corrosion cracking stress-corrosion test THE PHENOMENON of stress-corrosion cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... high-speed, water-hardening, shock-resistant, and hot and cold work tool steels. It discusses the influence of alloy design on the evolution of microstructure and properties during solidification, heat treating, and hardening operations. It also describes critical phase transformations and the effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... altered during heat treatment, solidification, and deformation (hot and cold working). Some specific examples are then shown to illustrate what can go wrong through unintentional changes in microstructure, for example, the loss of carbon from the surface of the steel by the process known as...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... achievable strengths. It explains how some alloys are hardened through solution strengthening and cold working, while others are strengthened by precipitation hardening. It also describes production and fabrication processes such as melting, casting, rolling, forging, forming, extruding, heat treating, and...