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cold forging

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... cold forging or hot forging in terms of preforge factors and/or discontinuities generated by the forging process. Supporting topics that are discussed in the case studies include validity checks for buster and blocker design, lubrication and wear, mechanical surface phenomenon, forging process design...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of finite-element methods for modeling cold forging processes. The discussion covers process modeling inputs, such as geometric parameters, material properties, and interface conditions, and includes several application examples. cold forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the process of cold forging and its effect on various materials. It describes billet preparation and lubrication procedures, cold upsetting techniques, and the use of slab analysis for estimating cold forging loads. It likewise describes extrusion processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of die failures in hot and cold forging operations. It describes failure classifications, fatigue fracture and wear mechanisms, analytical wear models, and the various factors that limit die life. It also includes several case studies in which finite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... process must be compatible with the load, energy, time, and accuracy characteristics of a given forging machine. There are basically three types of presses: hydraulic, mechanical, and screw presses. These machines are used for hot and cold forging, cold extrusion trimming, and coining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter presents a relatively simple method for estimating forging loads and flow stresses. The method uses the slab analysis technique and accounts for material properties, friction and heat transfer, press ram speed, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... materials and the basic requirements for cold forging dies. The chapter also covers die manufacturing processes, such as high-speed and hard machining, electrodischarge machining, and hobbing, and the use of surface treatments. die materials die manufacturing References...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... , Ngaile G. , Shirgaokar M. , “ Cold Forging Technology in Global Competition, ” International Conference on New Developments in Forging Technology at IFU ( Fellbach/Stuttgart, Germany ), June 2–4, 2003 . [Balendra et al., 1996] Balendra R. , and Ou H. , “ Influence of Forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... are various methods of evaluating friction, i.e., estimating the value of μ or m. In forging, the most commonly used tests are the ring compression test, spike test, and cold extrusion test. In forging, material is deformed plastically to generate the shape of the desired product. Metal flow is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... [ Haller, 1971 ] Automated and computer-numerical-controlled (CNC) radial forging machines can be used for hot or cold forging, with two, three, or four dies to produce solid or hollow, round, square, rectangular, or profiled sections. Some of the principal applications are production of stepped...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... commercial FE codes are available in the market for simulation of bulk forming processes, viz. DEFORM , FORGE , QFORM , etc. Some practical applications of FE simulation in hot and cold forging processes are presented in Chapters 16 and 18 . FE simulation is widely used in the industry for the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... , “ Investigation of Defect Formation in a 3-Station Closed Die Forging Operation, ” CIRP Annals , Vol. 381 , p 243 . 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)62695-X [Sagemuller, 1968] Sagemuller F. , “ Cold Impact Extrusion of Large Formed Parts, ” Wire , No. 95 , June , 1968 , p. 2 . [Shirgaokar et al., 2002...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...] Walters J. , Wu W.T. , Arvind A. , Guoji L. , Lambert D. , Tang J.P. , “ Recent Developments of Process Simulation for Industrial Applications, ” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Precision ForgingCold, Warm and Hot Forging , Oct 12–14, 1998 , Columbus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... microstructure and general component configuration, while the final hammer forging step results in controlled cold strain, which significantly increases the properties of the final part and imparts the final geometry refinement. This metallurgical-based process requires a high degree of process control for both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract Forging machines vary based on factors such as the rate at which energy is applied to the workpiece and the means by which it is controlled. Each type has distinct advantages and disadvantages, depending on lot size, workpiece complexity, dimensional tolerances, and the alloy being...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the development and use of microstructure models for optimizing superalloy forging operations. It describes how the processes that control grain structure evolution during hot working were used in model formulation and compares predicted microstructures with...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... chapter also describes several test methods for evaluating lubricants and explains how to interpret associated test data. cold forging friction hot forging lubrication References [Altan, 1970] Altan T. , “ Heat Generation and Temperatures in Wire and Rod...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the role of plastic deformation in forging and the effect of strain and strain rate on metal flow. It demonstrates the use of stress tensors and shows how metal flow can be represented qualitatively by the displacement of volume elements and quantitatively by the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... non steady state. Contact between the deforming metal and the dies is intermittent. The length of contact time and the nature of the heat transfer at the die/material interface influence temperatures very significantly. A simple example of an operation involving non-steady-state metal flow is the cold...