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coal-fired boilers

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., intended to reduce NOx emissions, accelerates tube wall wastage. It also covers circumferential cracking in furnace waterwalls, thermal fatigue cracking induced by waterlances and water cannons, superheater-reheater corrosion, and erosion in fluidized-bed boilers. coal-fired boilers combustion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... the waterwall tubes of supercritical coal-fired boilers fired under low NOx combustion conditions, conducive to the production of sulfidizing environments. In the other case, stress contributes to brittle fracture in the form of intergranular cracking. The phenomenon, which is known by various names...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... lead to circumferential grooving and cracking of the waterwall tubes under corrosive conditions such as under the oil-ash deposits and higher tube metal temperatures. The development of circumferential grooving/cracking on the waterwall tubes in coal-fired boilers is discussed in Chapter 10 “Coal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... States produced approximately 41% of the total energy used by these mills. The boiler construction is similar to that of coal-fired boilers ( Chapter 10 ), oil-fired boilers ( Chapter 11 ), and waste-to-energy (WTE) boilers ( Chapter 12 ) using the tube-membrane waterwalls for the furnace enclosure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... combustion introduced by the European authorities require that the temperature should be above 850 °C (1560 °F) for a 2 s residence time at the level 1 m above the secondary or tertiary air ( Ref 6 ). The MSW boilers operate at much lower steam pressures and temperatures compared with coal-fired utility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter provides an outline of the failure modes and mechanisms associated with most boiler tube failures in coal-fired power plants. Primary categories include stress rupture failures, water-side corrosion, fire-side corrosion, fire-side erosion, fatigue, operation failures, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... discusses the erosive effect of blowing soot, steam, and fly ash as well as coal particle impingement and falling slag. It also includes several case studies. boiler tubes coal-particle impingement falling slag fire-side erosion fly ash attack soot blowing steam cutting action Erosion is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...), nuclear fuels (uranium and, sometimes, plutonium), and renewable biomass (wood, straw, and manure). Though each type of fuel has its own advantages and limitations, coal is the most commonly used fuel. Coal-fired boilers using pulverized coal as the fossil fuel dominate the electric power industry, even...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... such other areas of the boiler that are subjected to departure from nucleate boiling or rapidly fluctuating flow conditions. It is also observed in superheaters subjected to vibrations of low amplitude. Waterwall tubes in pulverized coal power boilers often show circumferential cracking in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... governing the process of material selection. Low-alloy steels do not have adequate resistance to oxidation and creep above 580 °C, and therefore, austenitic stainless steels were used in power plants designed in the 1950s ( Ref 4.4 ). In a coal-fired thermal power plant, austenitic stainless steels are used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... parts such as turbines, boiler drums, headers, and boiler tubes. The efficiency and reliability of coal-fired power plants decreases with age. The designed life of a boiler and its components in a thermal power plant is about 20 to 30 years (i.e., approximately 200,000 to 300,000 hours). The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... corrosion in boiler tubes are: (i) waterwall corrosion, (ii) fuel ash corrosion such as corrosion due to coal ash and oil ash, (iii) hot corrosion, (iv) acid dew point corrosion, (v) stress corrosion cracking, and (vi) polythionic acid corrosion ( Ref 6.1 , 6.28 ). Fire-side corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... coal-fired boilers involves a combination of ferritic steels for relatively low-temperature components and austenitic stainless steels for the superheater and reheater sections, which operate at higher temperatures. Such combinations can lead to the production of dissimilar metal welds (DMW...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... boilers and refinery equipment. Finally, extensive discussion on the materials problems in coal-fired boilers, oil-fired boilers, waste-to-energy boilers, and black liquor recovery boilers is included. In summary, the subjects covered extensively in this book include: Oxidation Nitridation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... gas stream ( Ref 1 , 2 ), with average tube skin temperatures varying from 800 to 1120 °C (1475 to 2050 °F) and gas velocities greater than 200 m/s (656 ft/s). In coal-fired boilers, it is well known that fly-ash erosion can be a serious problem for boiler tubes. When coal (which contains ash) is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... applying a corrosion-resistant weld overlay instead of replacing it with a new construction. This approach has been adopted in the boiler industry in recent years to address the severe corrosion problems with the waterwalls of boilers in waste-to-energy boilers, coal-fired boilers, basic oxygen furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... boiling process between (a) subcritical and (b) supercritical boilers The thermal efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is governed by how much energy has been fed into the cycle and is getting converted into electrical energy. In other words, as the electrical output for a given amount of thermal...