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chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... alloys, acid- and weather-resistant alloy, ferrochromium, martensitic stainless steel, chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels, and ferritic chromium stainless steel. Information on the early discoverers and pioneers of stainless steel is also provided. acid-resistant alloys chromium-nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... of stainless steel can be found in the transportation industry, where both the cutlery martensitic and the chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels have been used. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on these applications. chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel martensitic stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... carbon. Giesen did most of his work on the iron-chromium-nickel austenitic steels, which had to be low carbon. Both published their results in the Iron and Steel Institute’s Carnegie Scholarship Memoirs , Vol. 1, 1909 ( Ref 2 ). The Discovery of Stainless Steel The first researcher to find...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the austenitic and duplex grades further with chromium, molybdenum, and nitrogen, and the ferritic grades with chromium and molybdenum. The beneficial effects of these alloying elements are complex and interactive. Attempts have been made by suppliers of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys to develop...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... 9% Ni are predominantly austenitic at room temperature. Occasionally, a small amount (typically less than 15%) of δ ferrite may be present in an austenitic stainless steel at room temperature. In addition to the relative amounts of iron, chromium, and nickel present, the microstructure of the alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of austenite- and ferrite-stabilizing elements on ferrite content in stainless steels. The ferrite-stabilizing elements similar to chromium are molybdenum, silicon, and niobium, while the austenite-stabilizing elements similar to nickel are manganese, carbon, and nitrogen. Thus, nickel and chromium equivalents...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... resistance. Since all stainless steels contain principally iron and chromium, the addition of a substantial amount of austenitizing elements is necessary to transform the structure to austenite. As a rule of thumb, iron alloys require about 17% chromium and 11% nickel (or its equivalents) to remain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Annealed bar 620 90 240 35 50 65 160 Annealed and cold-drawn bar 690 100 450 65 40 60 212 Source: Ref 2 Austenitic stainless steels form the 2 xx and 3 xx series of alloys. Chromium content generally varies from 16 to 26 wt%, nickel content is less than or equal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
..., followed by a paper by Dr. Benno Strauss ( Fig. 4 ), who had come from Germany to describe the iron-chromium-nickel alloy that he and Eduard Maurer had developed. Fig. 4 Benno Strauss, who promoted the industrial application of chromium-nickel austenitic steels that he developed with Eduard Maurer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the formula can vary from B 4 A to A 4 B. Table 3 lists the most common secondary phases encountered in austenitic stainless steels, i.e., apart from austenite and ferrite. Sigma formation is retarded by nitrogen, so alloys such as 153MA are less prone to it. Lower chromium and higher nickel are beneficial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... can also have an important effect by influencing the amount and type of inclusions (for example, sulfides) in the steel that can act as pitting sites. Austenitic Stainless Steels Both the major alloying elements of austenitic stainless steels, chromium and nickel, increase resistance to pitting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... (nickel is more frequently used) are added to an iron-chromium alloy, the “gamma loop” ( Fig. 1 ) expands to the right and downward so that, with the amount of alloying elements used in the 200 and 300 stainless steels, the entire area down to and below room temperature in Fig. 1 is austenite. Under...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... as rustless iron or stainless iron. In Germany, the Krupp Steel Works called their alloy that was remarkably resistant to most acids iron-chromium-nickel corrosion-resisting alloy or, probably more often, Krupp V2A alloy. It was the custom of each producer to give every different alloy a name, especially...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... Abstract This chapter presents the usefulness of martensitic chromium stainless steels discovered in England and America, the usefulness of ferritic chromium stainless steels discovered in America, and the usefulness of chromium-nickel stainless steels discovered in Germany. It also provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
...., American Society for Metals, 1972, p 135 Duplex Stainless Steel In 1927, Bain and Griffiths at U.S. Steel prepared phase diagrams of the iron-chromium-nickel system and described austenite-ferrite alloys with 23 to 30% chromium and 1.2 to 9.7% nickel, but no information on properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... was austenitic and had a chemical composition that was virtually the 18% chromium and 8% nickel composition of 18-8, or what became known as type 304 stainless steel. Krupp named the alloy V.2.A and referred to the material as a corrosion-resistant iron-chromium-nickel alloy. The alloy was a new metal very...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... in steels having chromium, nickel, and/or vanadium. It increases the resistance of steel to softening during tempering and softening on exposure to high temperature. Its use is therefore recommended in creep-resistant steels. In austenitic stainless steels, when added up to 2.0 wt.%, it improves resistance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... °C, they are used to resist attack by oxygen, sulfur, carburizing, nitriding, halogens, and molten salts. This group includes 302B, 309, 310, 347 and various other proprietary alloys. Enhanced corrosion-resistant austenitic stainless steels ( Table 12.5 ) use chromium, molybdenum, nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... shows the TTT (time-temperaturetransformation) diagram for various high-alloy stainless steel, including austenitic, ferritic, and duplex. Alloys of all structures, ferritic, austenitic, and duplex, with high chromium and molybdenum encounter the problem fairly equally and in proportion to their alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stainless steels. Low carbon and nitrogen levels give good toughness without tempering and minimize the loss of chromium to carbides, maintaining it in solution for corrosion resistance. The addition of nickel and molybdenum yields full austenite and martensite transformation and improves corrosion...