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chromium oxide

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... weight gain, metal loss, depth of attack, and oxidation rate. It also discusses the effect of metallurgical and environmental factors such as oxygen concentration, high-velocity combustion gas streams, chromium depletion and breakaway, component thickness, and water vapor. austenitic stainless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... spalling and cracking of oxide scale. It ends with a section providing information on oxidation behaviors under less-oxidizing atmospheres. oxidation stainless steel spalling cracking chromium oxide Wagner theory STAINLESS STEEL, often considered mainly as a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... carbon dioxide, providing oxygen that reacts with alloying elements, particularly manganese, chromium, and silicon. It examines the composition and distribution of oxides produced in different steels and assesses the resulting composition gradients. It describes how these changes influence the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... was developed for high-temperature oxidizing environments. They typically contain 50 to 80 wt% Ni, which permits the addition of other alloying elements to improve strength and corrosion resistance while maintaining toughness. The Ni-Cr-Fe alloys contain chromium ranging from 14 to 30 wt% and iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...-temperature alloys that suffered hot corrosion attack were generally found to exhibit both oxidation and sulfidation. The hot corrosion morphology is typically characterized by a thick, porous layer of oxides with the underlying alloy matrix depleted in chromium, followed by internal chromium-rich sulfides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., and the thermodynamics and kinetics of the process are not covered in any detail in this chapter. For more extensive information, the reader is referred to the references in Appendix C . The principal oxides that might form in a superalloy are those related to the basis metals and to chromium or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... used when high strength or high formability is the main objective; (2) chromium nickel alloys used for high temperature oxidation resistance; and (3) chromium, molybdenum, nickel, and nitrogen alloys used for applications where corrosion resistance is the main objective. austenitic stainless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract Steels with chromium contents above 12% show high resistance to oxidation and corrosion and are generally designated as stainless steels. This chapter discusses the compositions, microstructures, heat treatments, and properties of martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, ferritic-austenitic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract Steels that resist corrosive attack from normal atmospheric exposure and contain a minimum of 10.5% Cr and 50% Fe are generally classified as stainless steels. Their special qualities lie in a chromium-rich oxide surface film that quickly regrows when damaged. This chapter discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...′ lattice mismatch, γ′ volume fraction, diffusion rates, antiphase-boundary energy, and stacking fault energy. Surface stability improvement is achieved through the formation of a protective surface oxide scale composed largely of chromium and/or aluminum oxides. Reactive elements yttrium, cerium, hafnium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix contains tables that list the composition and capabilities of etchants that reveal the microstructure of metals and alloys, including aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, radioactive metals, rare earth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... carbon (max Mn range: 1.00–1.65) Manganese low-alloy steels 13 xx Mn 1.75 Nickel low-alloy steels 23 xx Ni 3.50 25 xx Ni 5.00 Nickel-chromium low-alloy steels 31 xx Ni 1.25; Cr 0.65 and 0.80 32 xx Ni 1.75; Cr 1.07 33 xx Ni 3.50; Cr 1.50 and 1.57 34 xx Ni...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... scales. In an oxidation study of alloy 800HT (Fe-21Cr-32Ni-0.5Al-0.5Ti) in air at 980 °C (1800 °F) for about 2 years (720 days), Harper et al. ( Ref 21 ) observed Widmanstätten acicular chromium-rich nitrides along with aluminum nitrides that formed below chromium-rich oxides. Lai ( Ref 22 ) observed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... steels Oxidizing atmospheres, hydrogen at high temperatures Carbon (decarburization) Iron-chromium alloys High-temperature oxidizing atmospheres Chromium, which forms a protective film Nickel-molybdenum alloys Oxygen at high temperature Molybdenum As an electrochemical process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... castings, such as copper, silicon, manganese, zinc, nickel, chromium, and titanium, are not readily lost by oxidation, evaporation, or precipitation. Alloying elements that melt at temperatures higher than the melting temperature of aluminum, such as chromium, silicon, manganese, and nickel, are added to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... can be used in certain industrial process solutions (including hydrochloric and sulfuric acids) that otherwise would be corrosive. Nitric and chromic acids, along with dissolved salts of iron, nickel, copper, and chromium, are especially effective inhibitors. Attack by red fuming nitric acid and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... dissipation. Beryllia substrates are commonly metalized with refractory metals such as molybdenum-manganese, chromium, titanium, and nickel-chromium alloys. Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits can be bonded by metallization for removal purposes. A very important class of beryllium compounds is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... extent in binary 11-Cr alloys and is detrimental. However, in alloys containing both chromium and molybdenum, improved reducing-acid corrosion without sacrificing the inherent oxidizing-acid corrosion resistance of titanium is observed. If both alloying concepts are used in, for example, Ti-15Mo...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... third environment, for which less data exists, contains either SO2 or O2-SO2 mixtures. chromium oxide oxygen activity sulfidation sulfur Sulfur is one of the most common corrosive contaminants in high-temperature industrial environments. Sulfur is generally present as an...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... high-temperature strength or oxidation resistance. Again, the driving force has been the requirements of the hot end of exhaust systems (e.g., exhaust manifolds). Alloying with niobium and molybdenum adds to the high-temperature strength, while additions of chromium, silicon, and aluminum increase...