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chromium oxide

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... weight gain, metal loss, depth of attack, and oxidation rate. It also discusses the effect of metallurgical and environmental factors such as oxygen concentration, high-velocity combustion gas streams, chromium depletion and breakaway, component thickness, and water vapor. austenitic stainless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... spalling and cracking of oxide scale. It ends with a section providing information on oxidation behaviors under less-oxidizing atmospheres. oxidation stainless steel spalling cracking chromium oxide Wagner theory References 1. Birks N. , Meier G.H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... carbon dioxide, providing oxygen that reacts with alloying elements, particularly manganese, chromium, and silicon. It examines the composition and distribution of oxides produced in different steels and assesses the resulting composition gradients. It describes how these changes influence the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... corrosion attack. High-temperature alloys that suffered hot corrosion attack were generally found to exhibit both oxidation and sulfidation. The hot corrosion morphology is typically characterized by a thick, porous layer of oxides with the underlying alloy matrix depleted in chromium, followed by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... is due to the amounts of nickel, chromium, and aluminum. During high-temperature exposure, these elements form an extremely protective and adherent surface oxide film. In addition, a slight amount of internal oxidation occurs and increases the chromium content in the surface oxide. This protective...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., and the thermodynamics and kinetics of the process are not covered in any detail in this chapter. For more extensive information, the reader is referred to the references in Appendix C . The principal oxides that might form in a superalloy are those related to the basis metals and to chromium or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... used when high strength or high formability is the main objective; (2) chromium nickel alloys used for high temperature oxidation resistance; and (3) chromium, molybdenum, nickel, and nitrogen alloys used for applications where corrosion resistance is the main objective. austenitic stainless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract Steels with chromium contents above 12% show high resistance to oxidation and corrosion and are generally designated as stainless steels. This chapter discusses the compositions, microstructures, heat treatments, and properties of martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, ferritic-austenitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... N06030 ( Table 1 ) could be used under highly oxidizing acidic conditions, because it contains a large amount of chromium. Other alloys, such as B-3 ( Table 1 ) are recommended for highly reducing acidic conditions, because they contain a large amount of molybdenum. However, for each alloy of unique...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract Steels that resist corrosive attack from normal atmospheric exposure and contain a minimum of 10.5% Cr and 50% Fe are generally classified as stainless steels. Their special qualities lie in a chromium-rich oxide surface film that quickly regrows when damaged. This chapter discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...′ lattice mismatch, γ′ volume fraction, diffusion rates, antiphase-boundary energy, and stacking fault energy. Surface stability improvement is achieved through the formation of a protective surface oxide scale composed largely of chromium and/or aluminum oxides. Reactive elements yttrium, cerium, hafnium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix contains tables that list the composition and capabilities of etchants that reveal the microstructure of metals and alloys, including aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, radioactive metals, rare earth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
...), and 29-4-2 (S44800). The low-chromium (10 to 14% Cr) alloys, such as types 405 and 409, have fair corrosion and oxidation resistance and good fabricability at low cost. Type 409, the most widely used ferritic stainless steel, has gained wide acceptance for use in automotive exhaust systems. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., free-machining carbon steels, low-alloy manganese steels, low-alloy molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium steels, and low-alloy silicon-manganese steels. The chapter provides...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... scales. In an oxidation study of alloy 800HT (Fe-21Cr-32Ni-0.5Al-0.5Ti) in air at 980 °C (1800 °F) for about 2 years (720 days), Harper et al. ( Ref 21 ) observed Widmanstätten acicular chromium-rich nitrides along with aluminum nitrides that formed below chromium-rich oxides. Lai ( Ref 22 ) observed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Chromium, iron, molybdenum, and tungsten Cobalt-tungsten-chromium alloys Not reported Cobalt Medium-carbon and high-carbon steels Oxidizing atmospheres, hydrogen at high temperatures Carbon (decarburization) Iron-chromium alloys High-temperature oxidizing atmospheres Chromium, which forms a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... castings, such as copper, silicon, manganese, zinc, nickel, chromium, and titanium, are not readily lost by oxidation, evaporation, or precipitation. Alloying elements that melt at temperatures higher than the melting temperature of aluminum, such as chromium, silicon, manganese, and nickel, are added to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...% BeO 2.86–2.91 Beryllia ceramic parts are frequently used in electronic and microelectronic applications requiring thermal dissipation. Beryllia substrates are commonly metalized with refractory metals such as molybdenum-manganese, chromium, titanium, and nickel-chromium alloys. Semiconductor...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... can be used in certain industrial process solutions (including hydrochloric and sulfuric acids) that otherwise would be corrosive. Nitric and chromic acids, along with dissolved salts of iron, nickel, copper, and chromium, are especially effective inhibitors. Attack by red fuming nitric acid and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... boiling acid solutions Chromium was studied to some extent in binary 11-Cr alloys and is detrimental. However, in alloys containing both chromium and molybdenum, improved reducing-acid corrosion without sacrificing the inherent oxidizing-acid corrosion resistance of titanium is observed. If...