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chromium

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ranges, distinguishing features, advantages, limitations, and applications. cast iron cooling rate graphite formation cementite formation silicon aluminum nickel cobalt copper sulfur vanadium chromium tin molybdenum manganese microstructure white cast iron gray cast iron ductile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... of Stainless Steel Powders” ) and sintering ( Chapter 5, “Sintering and Corrosion Resistance” ), widens the passive range in the final part when present in solid solution rather than as an oxide. Chromium, above its minimum content of approximately 12%, improves the passivation properties of a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... carbon (max Mn range: 1.00–1.65) Manganese low-alloy steels 13 xx Mn 1.75 Nickel low-alloy steels 23 xx Ni 3.50 25 xx Ni 5.00 Nickel-chromium low-alloy steels 31 xx Ni 1.25; Cr 0.65 and 0.80 32 xx Ni 1.75; Cr 1.07 33 xx Ni 3.50; Cr 1.50 and 1.57 34 xx Ni...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... nickel alloys. Corrosion- and heat-resistant nickel alloys include commercially pure and low-alloy nickels, nickel-copper alloys, nickel-molybdenum and nickel-silicon alloys, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys, and nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum-copper alloys. Special nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This appendix is a collection of isothermal diagrams for carbon steels, chromium-molybdenum steels, nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels, nickel-molybdenum steels, and chromium steels. Fig. A10.1 Carbon steels, 1019. Source: Ref 1 Fig. A10.2 Carbon steels, 1030. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... underlying alloy matrix depleted in chromium, followed (below) by internal chromium-rich sulfides. Type II hot corrosion is characterized by pitting with little or no internal attack underneath. As the chapter explains, chromium additions make alloys more resistant to all types of hot corrosion attacks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... used when high strength or high formability is the main objective; (2) chromium nickel alloys used for high temperature oxidation resistance; and (3) chromium, molybdenum, nickel, and nitrogen alloys used for applications where corrosion resistance is the main objective. austenitic stainless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract Steels with chromium contents above 12% show high resistance to oxidation and corrosion and are generally designated as stainless steels. This chapter discusses the compositions, microstructures, heat treatments, and properties of martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, ferritic-austenitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the evolution of engineering alloy steels, namely chromium, nickel, and nickel-chromium alloy steels. The discussion includes the automotive demand and development of specifications for the alloy steels. It also covers various research on heat treatment of alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Tools steels are defined by their wear resistance, hardness, and durability which, in large part, is achieve by the presence of carbide-forming alloys such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. This chapter describes the alloying principles employed in various tool steels, including...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Alloy steels are alloys of iron with the addition of carbon and one or more of the following elements: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, niobium, titanium, tungsten, cobalt, copper, vanadium, silicon, aluminum, and boron. Alloy steels exhibit superior mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Steels contain a wide range of elements, including alloys as well as residual processing impurities. This chapter describes the chemical composition of low-alloy AISI steels, which are classified based on the amounts of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel they contain. It explains why...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... include water-hardening; shock-resisting; oil-hardening cold-work; air-hardening, medium-alloy cold-work; high-carbon, high-chromium cold-work; low-alloy, special-purpose; mold; hot-work; and high-speed tool steels. air-hardening tool steel annealing austenitizing high-carbon tool steel high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... pioneering use of weight-saving vanadium alloys in Model T cars. It explains how interest in chromium alloys spread throughout the world, spurring the development of commercial stainless steels. The chapter concludes with a bullet point timeline of early 20th century achievements and a brief assessment of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of the Bronze Age, extraction of metals from their respective ores, and the discovery of modern metals such as chromium, vanadium, platinum, and titanium. extraction and refining THE ANCIENT WORLD passed from the Stone Age through the Bronze and Iron Ages to our modern developed society—a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract Steels that resist corrosive attack from normal atmospheric exposure and contain a minimum of 10.5% Cr and 50% Fe are generally classified as stainless steels. Their special qualities lie in a chromium-rich oxide surface film that quickly regrows when damaged. This chapter discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This appendix is a collection of selected continuous cooling transformation diagrams for carbon steels; Mn steels; Mn-Mo, Mn-Ce, Mn-Ni-Mo, and Mn-Ni-CrMo steels; silicon steels; nickel steels; Ni-Cr-Mo steels; and chromium steels. Fig. A11.1 0.18 C (1017–1022), analysis wt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... weight gain, metal loss, depth of attack, and oxidation rate. It also discusses the effect of metallurgical and environmental factors such as oxygen concentration, high-velocity combustion gas streams, chromium depletion and breakaway, component thickness, and water vapor. austenitic stainless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... explains how to construct tie lines to analyze intermediate compositions and phases. It also discusses the use of three-dimensional temperature-composition diagrams, three- and four-phase equilibrium phase diagrams, and binary and ternary phase diagrams associated with the iron-chromium-nickel alloy system...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... added, and how they affect various properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. It explains how silicon, chromium, and nickel, in particular, improve high-temperature, corrosion, and wear performance. annealing corrosion resistance gray iron hardenability normalizing stress...