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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.16 Corrosion rates of furnace walls (carbon steel) as a function of chlorine content in coal from boilers in many plants. Source: Ref 24 from original data ( Ref 25 ) More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.15 Corrosion rates of furnace walls (carbon steel) as a function of chlorine content in coal from boilers in two plants. The equation of the line is R c =1380 (%Cl)-208, where R c is corrosion rate (nm/h). Source: Ref 24 from original data ( Ref 25 ) More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of coal ash and the furnace slagging potential ( Ref 2 ). Many sodium compounds melt at temperatures below 900 °C (1650 °F) ( Ref 2 ). More detailed discussion about these parameters can be found in Ref 1 and 2 . Chlorine content is also an important indication for fouling potential. When chlorine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to corrosive attack under nitriding conditions (e.g., in dissociated ammonia) and in chlorine or chloride gases. Corrosion in the latter at elevated temperatures proceeds by the formation and volatilization of chloride scales. High nickel contents in the alloys are beneficial, because nickel forms one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., such rings are joined by the coordination of their oxygen atoms to the metallic cations. Many methods have been explored to recover beryllium from beryl. All are costly due to the low beryllia content of the ore and the necessity for protective measures in handling dusts and spray containing dissolved...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... at temperatures up to approximately 260 °C (500 °F). Exposure to liquid or gaseous oxygen, nitrogen tetroxide, or red fuming nitric acid can cause titanium to react violently under impact loading. Wet chlorine has essentially no effect on titanium; titanium is used extensively for handling wet chlorine gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... is soluble in concentrated acids, fuming bases, and some chlorine-containing solvents. Beryllium chlorides are very soluble in water as well as in ethyl alcohol, ethyl ether, chloroform, and carbon disulfide [ Birkbeck et al. 1999 ]. In the presence of chloride ions, beryllium is susceptible to pitting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... stability diagrams. It provides an extensive amount of high-temperature corrosion data for metals and alloys in gaseous environments containing chlorine and hydrogen chloride; fluorine and hydrogen fluoride; bromine and hydrogen bromide; and iodine and hydrogen iodide. halogen gases high-temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... that can be achieved by aluminum is limited, because above 6% Al promotes ordering and Ti 3 Al (α 2 ) formation, which is associated with embrittlement. Thus, aluminum content of most titanium alloys is typically below 7%. Formation of α 2 , which is closely related to O 2 content, can actually occur...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... (9.2 m/min). Powder metallurgy versions of an alloy should produce better tool life, because the carbon content usually is reduced for a powder-processed wrought alloy over that same alloy in the cast version. If the P/M alloy version has previously been made by ingot metallurgy practice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... dissolved hydrogen levels. During cooling and solidification, dissolved hydrogen in excess of the extremely low solid solubility may precipitate in molecular form, resulting in the formation of primary and/or secondary voids. Primary or interdendritic porosity forms when hydrogen contents...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... to embrittlement. The higher the temperature, the more rapid the attack. Highly oxidizing gases such as dry chlorine, dry bromine, and nitrogen tetroxide can produce violent, exothermic reactions that lead to ignition of titanium. A minimum water content is necessary to preclude this occurrence. The critical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... rapid attack of titanium and may even cause ignition, if moisture content is sufficiently low. However, as little as 0.5% water is generally sufficient for passivation or repassivation after mechanical damage to titanium in chlorine gas under static conditions at room temperature. Halogen and Halide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of the type that probably never will be ores for the recovery of titanium metal due to the cost of processing. Rutile is the preferred ore for titanium metal because it contains the highest TiO 2 content of all the titanium-bearing minerals. Table 1.5 shows the typical TiO 2 content of several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... carbide to beryllium hydroxide and methane. The minimum residual carbon content of 0.035 wt% is its solubility in beryllium. 10.3 Beryllium Carbonates Beryllium carbonate tetrahydrate, BeCO 3 · 4H 2 O, is prepared by passing carbon dioxide through an aqueous suspension of beryllium hydroxide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... carbon. This lower carbon content on the inner surface was due to surface decarburization. The MOC of the tube conformed to SA 213 Grade T12. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis on the inner surface showed the presence of oxygen, aluminum, silicon, chlorine (as chloride), calcium and potassium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... at low wheel and belt speeds. Belt Grinding Most alloy sheet materials with a high aluminum content, such as Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, are ground to eliminate pits and a rippled condition that develops in hot rolling as a result of discontinuous slip during plastic deformation. Grinding is frequently used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... ranges. beryllium copper waste recycling 27.1 Introduction Salient beryllium statistics are based mostly on the beryllium content of beryllium-copper alloys and beryllium metal ( Table 27.1 ). In 2000, approximately 130 metric tons of beryllium contained in postconsumer old scrap...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... austenitic alloys are used only when the part cannot be made from a ferritic. There has been much research to develop ferritic stainless alloys with improved formability. This has been accomplished by reducing the total interstitial content (i.e. carbon plus nitrogen) and by thermomechanical working...