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chloride threshold

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... using this fracture-mechanics-based approach. Figure 12.4 shows an example of the use of this method to characterize the effect of chloride-ion concentration on SCC susceptibility in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr ( Ref 12.18 ). The stress-intensity thresholds provided by these tests are more useful in engineering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... testing ASTM E399-12e3: Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness of K Ic of metallic materials (gives sample dimensions and methods utilized to obtained threshold and crack growth rate data during stress corrosion testing). ASTM E1682-02(2013): Standard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... chloride levels. However, chloride concentration has been reported to have little influence on the threshold stress level of precracked specimens ( Ref 2.44 ). As shown in Table 2.2 , SCC in seawater produces threshold stress-intensity factor values comparable to those observed in laboratory-prepared...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... grades 3RE60, 2205, and Ferralium 255 are susceptible to chloride SCC in boiling magnesium chloride. However, the threshold stresses for chloride SCC generally are higher for the duplex stainless steels than for the austenitics. An example of this is shown in Fig. 4.27 ( Ref 4.95 ), where the threshold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., seamless), Datasheet updated Nov 28 , 2013 11.2 Dunham J.T. and Kato H. , “Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Zirconium in Ferric Chloride Solution,” U.S. Bureau of Mines Report, BM-R1-5784, 1961 11.3 K.C. Thomas and R J. Allio , J. Nucl. Appl. , Vol 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... mechanism becomes more credible. Figure 3.5 illustrates local chemistry and pH changes within a propagating crack in a neutral saline environment ( Ref 3.7 ). The presence of chloride ions is not relevant to the thermodynamics of hydrogen reduction or crack-tip acidification. Rather, it is the metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., or peroxide, can cause manganese to be oxidized to manganese dioxide. The precipitated deposits of manganese dioxide can accelerate pitting corrosion even in low-chloride waters in which alloys such as 316 would otherwise be safe from pitting attack. Biocorrosion is most commonly encountered in ambient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Simmonds M.C. , Kheyrandish H. , Colligon J.S. , Hitchman M.L. , Cade N. , and Iredale J. , The Observation of a Threshold in the De-Alloying of Sputter-Deposited Pt x Al 1-x Alloy Thin Films , Corros. Sci. , Vol 40 , 1998 , p 43 – 48 10.1016/S0010-938X(97)00109-1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...-environment combinations, the threshold stress is as high as 70% of yield strength. The effect of alloy composition on threshold stress is shown in Fig. 17 , which illustrates the relationship between applied stress and average time to fracture in boiling 42% magnesium chloride solution for two 18-8...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... for Exfoliation Corrosion Susceptibility in 2 xxx and 7 xxx Series Aluminum Alloys (EXCO Test) Describes a procedure for evaluating exfoliation resistance of high-strength alloys by continuous immersion in an aqueous solution containing sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, and nitric acid. See text for details...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 113 , 1966 , p 773 – 778 10.1149/1.2424117 11. Burstein G.T. and Pistorius P.C. , Surface Roughness and the Metastable Pitting of Stainless Steel in Chloride Solutions , Corrosion , Vol 51 , 1995 , p 380 – 385 12. Janik-Czachor M...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... species in the environment. Thus, the SCC of copper alloys, traditionally referred to as season cracking , is virtually always due to the presence of ammonia in the environment, and chloride ions cause or exacerbate cracking in stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Also, an environment that causes SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... stimulate SCC have been discovered over the years. In the mid-1950s, numerous titanium alloys were found to be susceptible to SCC in red-fuming nitric acid ( Ref 10.3 , 10.4 ). In the same period, laboratory creep testing of titanium alloy turbine blades revealed SCC under chloride salt deposits...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., with pitting potential dropping fairly rapidly with temperature and at different rates for different alloys. Figures 25 and 26 show the influence of pH and chloride concentration, respectively. In 3% NaCl ( Fig. 26 ), the rankings show a minor variation with pH and a rational relationship to alloy content...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... cracking is alloy/environment specific; that is, it is frequently the result of a specific chemical species in the environment. For example, the SCC of copper alloys, traditionally referred to as season cracking, is usually due to the presence of ammonia in the environment, and chloride ions cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... virulence of the chloride ion and because of its universal presence, corrosion-resistant austenitic stainless steels all look like they were designed to resist chloride-pitting attack. Pitting in stainless steels is in most instances the threshold level of corrosion. Crevice corrosion is, however, more...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to be cathodic to ordinary iron and steel. A change to an active state usually occurs only where chloride concentrations are high, as in seawater, or in reducing solutions. Oxygen starvation also produces a change in the active state, leading to accelerated corrosion. This occurs where the oxygen supply...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... for weldments. The chapter concludes with a section on how to interpret time to failure, threshold stress, percent survival, stress intensity, and propagation rate data, and assess the precision of the associated tests. precracked specimens slow-strain-rate testing smooth specimens stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... the types of environments and stress loads where nickel-base alloys are most susceptible to SCC. It begins with a review of the physical metallurgy of nickel alloys, focusing on the role of carbides and intermetallic phases. It then explains how SCC occurs in the presence of halides (such as chlorides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... (6.9 × 10 −7 in. 2 /lbf), fail primarily by crack propagation and/or thermal stability. This group includes rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyphenylene oxide (PPO), polysulfone (PSU), urea, diallyl orthophthalate (DAP), phenolic, and epoxy (EP). Group 2: Materials with intermediate loss...